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Scala interview questions and answers in 2024

If you want to work as a successful Scala developer for a top Silicon Valley firm or build a team of talented Scala developers, you've come to the right spot. We've carefully compiled a list of Scala developer interview questions for your Scala interview to give you an idea of the kind of Scala interview questions you can ask or be asked.

Last updated on Jun 14, 2024

Scala is a powerful and statically typed versatile programming language that supports both object-oriented and functional programming. Also, it is widely known for its concise syntax and seamless integration with Java.

This article presents a collection of frequently asked Scala interview questions and answers to help you steer through the interview process. Whether you are an experienced Scala developer or preparing for your first job interview, these questions will help enhance your understanding of the language.

Conversely, if you are a recruiter looking to hire talented Scala developers, the list will help you ask the right questions to gauge a developer’s technical expertise.

Basic Scala interview questions and answers

1.

What is Scala? What are the advantages of using Scala?

Scala is a hybrid functional programming language. Scala combined the features of object-oriented and functional languages. It was designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way.

Scala source code is first compiled into Java bytecode, and this executable code runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This means that Scala and Java have a high level of interoperability - Scala can use any Java class and its libraries. Scala is known for its scalability and it's used in a wide range of programming tasks, from writing small scripts to building large systems.

Scala offers several advantages that make it a popular choice among developers. Some advantages are as follows:

  • Concise and expressive syntax: As Scala combines object-oriented and functional programming paradigms, it provides a clear and concise syntax. This allows developers to write code that is concise and readable.
  • Strong static type system: Its static type system catches many errors at compile-time, providing reliable and bug-free code.
  • Functional programming features: Scala encompasses functional programming concepts that allows developers to write modular, reusable, and composable code.
  • Interoperability with Java: Scala runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and seamlessly interoperates with Java. This allows developers to reuse existing Java code and integrate with Java-based systems.
  • Concurrency and parallelism: Scala has built-in support for concurrent and parallel programming.
  • Scalability: With Scala's ability to scale, it can efficiently handle large-scale systems and high-performance applications.
  • Tooling and ecosystem: Scala has a rich ecosystem with a wide range of libraries, frameworks, and development tools. It has robust IDE support (e.g., IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse) and build tools like sbt.

2.

What are the four types of scala identifiers?

Scala identifiers are names used to identify a variable, function, or any other user-defined item. There are four types of identifiers in Scala:

Alphanumeric Identifiers: These are similar to identifiers in other programming languages. They start with a letter or underscore, which can be followed by further letters, digits, or underscores.

Operator Identifiers: These consist of one or more operator characters. Operator characters are printable ASCII characters such as +, -, *, /, :, etc.

Mixed Identifiers: These start with an alphanumeric identifier, followed by an underscore and then an operator identifier. For example, unary_+.

Literal Identifiers: These are arbitrary strings enclosed in backticks (`).

3.

Name different types of Scala literals.

Different types of Scala literals are:

  • Boolean Literals
  • Symbol Literals
  • Integer literals
  • Character literals
  • String literals
  • Floating-point literals

4.

Explain ofDim() in Scala.

In Scala, ofDim() is a method used to create multidimensional arrays. The name "ofDim" stands for "of Dimension." This method is a part of the Array object, and it allows you to create arrays with multiple dimensions, such as 2D arrays, 3D arrays, and so on.

The syntax for using ofDim() is as follows:

def ofDim[T](dims: Int*)(implicit evidence$1: reflect.ClassTag[T]): Array[T]

Parameters:

T: The type of elements that the array will hold.

dims: A variable number of arguments that specify the size of each dimension of the array.

5.

What is a Scala set? What are its different types?

In Scala, a Set is a collection of unique elements of the same type, with no particular order. It does not allow duplicate values. There are two main types of sets in Scala: Mutable and Immutable. By default, Scala uses Immutable sets.

Immutable Sets (scala.collection.immutable.Set): Once created, these sets cannot be altered. This means that operations like adding or removing elements will create a new set.

Mutable Sets (scala.collection.mutable.Set): These sets allow the addition, removal, and updating of elements in-place. However, they are not thread-safe by default and require external synchronization when accessed concurrently.

Additionally, Scala provides a HashSet (scala.collection.mutable.HashSet), which is a mutable set optimized for fast element lookup. It's important to note that a HashSet is not ordered, and the order of elements may change.

6.

What are scala maps?

In Scala, a Map is a collection of key-value pairs, where each key must be unique. It's essentially a set of associations that map keys to values. Maps are useful when we want to retrieve a value by looking up a particular key.

Scala provides two types of Maps:

Immutable Maps (scala.collection.immutable.Map): These are the default Map types in Scala. Once an Immutable Map is created, it cannot be changed. This means that operations like adding, updating, or removing key-value pairs will create a new Map.

Example: val map = Map("a" -> 1, "b" -> 2)

Mutable Maps (scala.collection.mutable.Map): These Maps allow the addition, removal, and updating of key-value pairs in-place.

Example: val map = scala.collection.mutable.Map("a" -> 1, "b" -> 2)

In both examples, "a" and "b" are keys, and 1 and 2 are their corresponding values.

7.

What are scala variables?

In Scala, variables are named storage locations that our programs can manipulate. Each variable in Scala has a specific type, which determines the size and layout of the variable's memory, the range of values that can be stored within that memory, and the set of operations that can be applied to the variable.

Scala has two types of variables:

Mutable variables: These are declared using the var keyword and can be reassigned after their initial declaration.

Example: var x = 10

Immutable variables: These are declared using the val keyword and cannot be reassigned once initialized. They are essentially read-only and similar to final variables in Java.

Example: val y = 20

In both examples, x and y are variables, 10 and 20 are their respective values.

8.

What is the difference between class and object?

Image 23-08-23 at 2.28 PM.webp

9.

What is a tail recursion in Scala?

Tail recursion is a technique used in functional programming where a function calls itself recursively as its last action. In other words, the recursive call is the final operation executed in the function. This approach is important for writing efficient and stack-safe recursive algorithms.

In traditional recursion, each recursive call adds a new frame to the call stack, potentially leading to a stack overflow error for deep recursion. Tail recursion, on the other hand, reuses the current function's stack frame for the next recursive call, eliminating the risk of a stack overflow.

Key Features of Tail Recursion:

Last Operation: In a tail-recursive function, the recursive call is the last operation performed in the function before returning a result.

Stack Efficiency: Tail recursion optimizes memory usage by reusing the same stack frame for each recursive call, preventing stack overflow issues.

Functional Style: Tail recursion aligns well with the functional programming paradigm, promoting a clearer and more concise coding style.

10.

What is the Scala trait?

In Scala, a trait is a fundamental building block that defines a reusable interface with methods and field definitions. Traits are similar to Java interfaces but provide more flexibility by allowing both abstract and concrete methods. You have the freedom to create traits with entirely abstract methods or a mix of abstract and implemented methods.

Key Characteristics of Scala Traits:

Method and Field Definitions: A trait can include method signatures (abstract methods) and field definitions (variables).

Abstract and Concrete Methods: Traits can contain methods that must be implemented by classes that use the trait, as well as methods with default implementations.

Mixin Composition: Classes can extend multiple traits, enabling flexible code reuse through mixin composition.

Instantiation: Traits cannot be instantiated directly; they serve as blueprints for classes.

11.

What are case classes?

Case classes are a special type of class in Scala designed primarily for modeling immutable data structures. They come with built-in features that make them convenient for working with immutable data, enabling pattern matching and automatic generation of common methods.

Some key features of case classes are as follows:

Immutable by Default: Case classes are automatically immutable, ensuring that their properties (fields) cannot be changed after creation. This promotes safer and more reliable code by preventing unintended modifications.

Automatic Getter Methods: Case classes automatically generate getter methods for their fields. This makes it straightforward to access the values stored in instances of case classes.

Structural Equality: Case classes provide built-in implementations of the equals and hashCode methods based on the values of their fields. This enables reliable and consistent comparison of case class instances for equality.

Pattern Matching: One of the most powerful features of case classes is their seamless integration with pattern matching. They are commonly used in pattern matching expressions to destructure case class instances, extract their values, and take different actions based on the matched patterns.

12.

How can you format a string?

In a program, you can use the .format() method to format a string.

For an example: var p = m.format(q, g)

In Scala, a string can be formatted using the format method. With the format method you can insert values into a string by specifying placeholders and providing corresponding values.

Here's an example

Image 23-08-23 at 2.34 PM.webp

13.

Why does Scala prefer immutability?

In Scala, immutable objects are first-class citizens, and their preference is by default. They help to cope with equality issues and concurrent programs like they prohibit mistakes in distributed systems and give you thread-safe data.

14.

How can we append to the list?

Using the keyword 'append()', you can add a list within a list. If you want to add a new object to another list that is already prepared, you can add it by using the append() keyword. For example,

var myList = List.empty[String]

myList :+= "p"

myList :+= "q"

myList :+= "r"

use++ for appending a list

var myList = List.empty[String]

myList ++= List("p", "q", "r")

15.

What is the basic difference between var and value?

var vs value.webp

16.

Compare Scala with other programming languages.

  1. Scala code is easily readable and error-free and doesn't contain unnecessary information.
  2. It is more uncomplicated than other programming languages and easy to write, compile, and run the code.
  3. In Scala, concurrency helps in parallelizing tasks.
  4. In Scala, problems will be solved from many different angles with the help of functional programming.

Now let's compare it against two popular programming languages Python and Java.

scala-python-java.webp

17.

What is the use of tuples in Scala?.

Tuples in Scala are a collection of immutable elements. They can hold a fixed number of elements, each with its type. They are useful when you need to group multiple values and treat them as a single entity. Here are some common use cases for tuples:

  • To return multiple values
  • To group related data
  • For iterating over collections
  • Pattern matching

Also, you must remember that tuples in Scala are indexed starting from 1, unlike arrays or lists that are indexed starting from 0.

18.

What is the use of function currying in Scala?

It is a method of converting a function with several arguments into a sequence of functions that take one argument. It has all kinds of parameter lists and is globally used in a vast range of functional languages.

19.

What are the implicit parameters in Scala?

With Scala's implicit parameters , you can define the parameters that are automatically filled in by the compiler depending on their type. When a method or function has implicit parameters, you can skip providing those parameters explicitly when calling the method. Instead, the compiler will find out suitable values in the current scope and automatically pass them.

scala implicit-parameters.webp

20.

What are closures in Scala?

It is a method which uses multiple free variables and whose return value depends on the value of those free variables which are declared outside this method. Outside variables are not bound to a function with a valid value.

21.

What are Scala's higher-order functions?

In Scala higher-order functions contain other functions as input and give output by returning a function.

In Scala, higher-order functions are those functions that can take other functions as parameters or return functions as output. They allow functions to be manipulated and passed around like any other value.

Scala's support for higher-order functions is one of powerful feature that allows functional programming techniques. Here are some examples of higher-order functions in Scala:

Map: The map function applies a given function to every element of a collection and returns a new collection with the changed values.

Filter: The filter function takes a predicate function and returns only the elements that obey the predicate.

Reduce: Applies a binary operation to the elements of a collection and returns a single value.

FlatMap: Applies a function to each element of a collection and flattens the results into a single collection.

22.

Explain about Scala anonymous function.

Anonymous functions are those functions that are not defined by name and are useful when you want to create an inline function. You can define several arguments in an anonymous function.

23.

List name of a few frameworks that Scala supports.

  • Akka Framework
  • Neo4j Framework
  • Lift Framework
  • Spark Framework
  • Play Framework
  • Scalding Framework
  • Bowler Framework

24.

Mention the types of variables in Scala.

There are two types of variable mutable and immutable variables:

immutable vs mutable var.webp

25.

What is a stream in Scala?

In Scala, the stream is an inactive or lazy list where elements are accessed only when they are required. It is faster processing because the elements in the list are only evacuated when they are really needed. However, it is important to note that streams are not necessarily faster in processing; their advantage lies in their lazy evaluation behavior.

26.

Give the names of Operators in Scala.

In Scala, the following are the names of the commonly used operators:

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Assignment Operators

27.

Why do we need an App in Scala?

The app is a helper class that is provided by Scala, which provides the main method. You don't have to write the main method every time instead , the App class produces concise and executable applications in Scala.

28.

Write the types of scope provided for variables in Scala.

In Scala, three types of scopes for variables are provided:

Fields: Field variables are declared within a class or object and represent the state or properties of that class or object. They can be accessed and modified from anywhere within the scope of the class or object, depending on their access modifiers (private, protected, or public). Fields can be declared using both var (mutable) and val (immutable).

Method Parameters: Method parameters are variables that are passed to a method when it is called. They are accessible only within the body of the method and are used to process the values passed to the method. Method parameters are immutable by default, meaning their values cannot be changed within the method.

Local Variables: Local variables are declared within a method or a block and are accessible only within that method or block. They are used to store temporary values or intermediate results. Local variables are typically declared using the val keyword, making them immutable.

29.

Mention how Scala is different from Java?

scala vs java.webp

30.

Explain how Scala is similar to object-oriented and functional programming languages?

Scala is a language that combines both object-oriented and functional programming . It takes concepts and features from both which makes it a versatile language. Here's an explanation of how Scala is similar to object-oriented and functional programming languages:

With Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):

  • Objects and Classes: Scala is an object-oriented language, and allows the creation of objects and classes.
  • Encapsulation: Scala allows to encapsulate data and behavior within classes.
  • Inheritance and Polymorphism: Scala supports inheritance and allows classes to extend other classes. It also supports polymorphism.
  • Message Passing: Scala treats objects as different entities that communicate with each other by exchange of messages.

With Functional Programming (FP):

  • Immutable Data: Immutable data structures are used by default.
  • Higher-Order Functions: In Scala functions are treated as first-class citizens, where you can pass functions as arguments, return functions as results, and assign functions to variables.
  • Function Composition: With function composition you can combine multiple functions to create new functions.
  • Pattern Matching: Scala allows Pattern matching, a powerful feature of functional programming.
  • Immutability by Default: Scala supports immutable variables and data structures, which coincide with functional programming principles.

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Intermediate Scala interview questions and answers

1.

What are the access modifiers available in Scala?

In Scala there are three access modifiers and they are as follows:

Private: Private modifier is accessible within the class or objects where it is declared. Private modifiers are not accessible from outside the enclosing scope, including subclasses.

Protected: A protected modifiers is accessed from subclasses of the class where the member is already defined.

Public: It is different from the private and public because it has no requirement to specify public keywords for public members. Like the name Public they can be accessible from inside and outside the class.

2.

What is the functionality of Yield?

If you want to increment the value of collection by one you can use this functionality while performing any operation on the collection elements. In Scala it is used with the sequence comprehensions like withFilter, foreach, and FlatMap. And these keywords is declared at the end of the loop. The yield keyword allows you to specify the transformation or filtering logic for each element in a concise and readable manner.

3.

What is Monad in Scala?

In Scala, a Monad is a design pattern and concept from functional programming. It provides a way to encapsulate and sequence operations in a predictable and compositional manner. Monads are commonly used to handle side effects, asynchronous computations, and other operations that involve chaining and sequencing.

4.

Name some of the Packages in Scala?

Java.lang: It provides classes that are essential to the Java language such as Math, String, and basic runtime support for threads and processes.

Java.io: It is used to read and write files. It imports every class in Scala for input-output resources.

PreDef: Without having an explicit qualification you can access all Scala compilation units by having a PreDef definition.

scala.collection: This package provides classes and traits for working with lists, sets, maps, and sequences.

scala.math: provides mathematical functions and constants.

5.

Why is an Option used in Scala?

The Option type is used to handle situations where a value may or may not be present. It acts as a safer alternative to using null references and to explicitly handle the absence of a value in a type-safe manner.

Here are the prime reasons why Option is used in Scala:

  • To avoid null References: null references can lead to null pointer exceptions at runtime. This can be difficult to debug and resolve. By using Option, you can explicitly showcase the absence of a value without resorting to null.
  • Expressing Presence or Absence: An Option can showcase the presence or absence of a value explicit that improved code readability.
  • Promoting Safe Handling: The use of Option encourages developers to handle both the cases when the value is present and not present. This prevents runtime errors.

6.

How is the Scala code compiled?

The compilation process for Scala code goes through the following steps:

  1. Write your Scala code using a text editor, integrated development environment (IDE), or the Scala REPL (Read-Eval-Print Loop).
  2. Next pass your Scala code to the Scala compiler (scalac). The compiler performs lexical analysis, syntax parsing, and semantic analysis on the source code to check its accuracy and compatibility with the Scala language specifications.
  3. The Scala compiler now translates the validated Scala source code into intermediate bytecode called "Scala bytecode" or "Java-compatible bytecode."
  4. The generated Scala bytecode is executed on the JVM. which does the compilation of the bytecode to machine code specific to the target platform.

7.

Give one difference between each of the following Null, Nil, None, and Nothing?

Image 23-08-23 at 3.28 PM (1).webp

8.

What is an auxiliary constructor?

In Scala, an auxiliary constructor is a secondary constructor defined within a class that allows you to provide alternative ways to initialize an instance of the class. Each auxiliary constructor is defined using the this keyword followed by parentheses and the necessary parameters. The primary constructor (if defined) is always the first constructor to be executed, and it can delegate to auxiliary constructors using the this keyword as well.

9.

What is the extractor in Scala?

In Scala, an extractor is a design pattern that is used to deconstruct (or extract) complex data structures, like objects or tuples, into their individual components. This pattern is particularly useful in pattern matching and is closely related to case classes and their companion objects.

10.

What would be the result of p+q*r and why?

In Scala, the result of the expression p + q * r would depend on the types of the variables p, q, and r, as well as their associated behaviors for addition (+) and multiplication (*). The precedence of the operators also comes into play.

The result of p + q * r in Scala will vary based on the types of p, q, and r, as well as their associated operator behaviors and precedence rules.

11.

In Scala why is the “Static” keyword not used?

In Scala, the concept of static members and methods, as seen in languages like Java, is represented differently. Scala avoids the use of the static keyword for several reasons, and instead, it provides alternative mechanisms to achieve similar functionality in a more flexible and expressive way:

Singleton Objects: In Scala, you can define a singleton object using the object keyword. A singleton object is a single instance of a class that is automatically created and initialized when it is first referenced. It's commonly used to hold static members and methods that are associated with a class.

Companion Objects: Scala allows you to define a companion object for each class. A companion object has the same name as its associated class and can access private members of the class. This provides a way to group related functionality, including static-like members and methods, while maintaining access to the class's internals.

Implicit Parameters and Type Classes: Scala's implicit parameters and type classes provide a more advanced and flexible alternative to static methods. These features allow you to define behaviors that can be injected into methods and classes at compile time, enabling dynamic extension and customization of functionality.

Traits and Mixins: Traits in Scala are similar to interfaces in Java, but they can also include method implementations. Traits and mixin composition provide a powerful way to achieve code reuse and extension without the need for static methods.

12.

Find the error in the following code:

Image 23-08-23 at 3.38 PM.webp

Scala does not support the syntax “k++” instead of this it will be replaced with “k+=1” or “k=k+1”.

13.

Name the types of inheritance which are supported by Scala?

Scala supports three inheritance:

Single: It refers to the ability of a class to inherit from a single superclass. In Scala, in one particular time, a class can extend only one class . This creates a parent-child relationship between classes where the child class can inherit the members of the parent class.

Multilevel: This type of inheritance occurs when a class extends another class, and that class, in turn, extends another class. This property allows a subclass to inherit properties and behavior not only from its immediate uperclass but also the superclass's superclass.

Hierarchical: It occurs when multiple classes inherit from a single superclass.

14.

Explain BitSet.

In Scala, a BitSet is a collection that represents a set of non-negative integer values as bits. It is designed to efficiently store and manipulate sets of integers. The BitSet implementation uses a compact representation where each bit in a word represents the presence or absence of a corresponding integer in the set

15.

Explain map() and flatmap().

map() method: map() function allows us to recapitulate over a collection to translate it into another collection. It is a very powerful method, heavily overloaded and used in situations where immediate action was taken.

flatmap() method: It is also similar as map() except it creates a sequence and removes inner grouping.

16.

Explain types of loops in Scala.

Here are the types of loops in Scala:

  • While loop: If a given condition is true, then it repeats the process.
  • Do-While: It tests the condition at the end of the loop body, then repeat the loop.
  • For: By using this command, executes a sequence of statements.
  • Break: By this command loop is terminated.

17.

Write a program in which use If-Else-If terminology.

if-else-if.webp

18.

Explain any five string methods.

  • String trim(): It removes whitespace from both end and return copy of the string.
  • String toUpperCase: It converts all strings into uppercase.
  • Char[] to CharArray(): It converts a string into a new character array.
  • String[] split(String regex): It splits the string.
  • Int length(): Here it returns the length of the string.

19.

Explain Queue ?

Queue is a data structure but follows the First In First Out method which is used in Queue for data processing. You have to import a library in Scala to work with Queue called "import scala.collection.mutable.Queue". The Queue class provides methods to enqueue (add) elements to the end of the queue, dequeue (remove) elements from the front of the queue, and access the front element without removing it.

20.

How do I Concatenate two Strings?

Here are the methods to perform string concatenation in Scala are as follows:

  • String interpolation: string1.concat(string2);
  • concat()method: "My name is ".concat("Zara");
  • ‘+’ operator: "Hello," + " world" + "!"

21.

What is the difference between a future and a promise in Scala?

future vs promise.webp

22.

How do you declare a function in Scala?

Using the “def“ keyword function is declared in Scala.

For example:

Image 23-08-23 at 3.51 PM.webp

23.

What is a type alias in Scala and how do you use it?

In Scala, a type alias is a way to give an existing type a new name. It doesn't create a new type; it's simply a mechanism for providing a more descriptive or convenient name for an existing type. This can help improve the readability and maintainability of your code, especially when dealing with complex type signatures or when you want to emphasize the purpose of a certain type.

Type aliases are declared using the type keyword. Here's the general syntax:

type NewTypeName = ExistingType

Here's an example of how type aliases can be used:

Image 23-08-23 at 3.53 PM.webp

In this example, UserID and Username are type aliases for Int and String, respectively. This makes the code more self-explanatory and readable when dealing with User instances.

24.

What is the difference between varargs and a Seq in Scala?

Image 23-08-23 at 3.56 PM.webp

25.

What is a companion class in Scala?

In Scala, a companion class refers to a class that is defined in the same source file as an associated singleton object with the same name. The companion class and companion object are tied together in such a way that they can access each other's private members, providing a form of bidirectional access.

26.

What is the difference between a for-loop and a foreach loop in Scala?

for vs for each.webp

27.

What is a context bound in Scala?

In Scala, a context bound is a syntactic shortcut that simplifies the process of providing implicit parameters to a method. Context bounds are often used when you want to require an implicit instance of a certain type class for a method without having to explicitly pass it as an argument.

Context bounds are denoted by the use of the [T: Typeclass] syntax, where T is the type parameter and Typeclass is the type class that you want to require. This syntax is used in combination with an implicit parameter list to automatically search for and provide the required implicit instance of the type class.

28.

What is a value class in Scala?

In Scala, a value class is a lightweight wrapper around an existing data type that allows you to add additional functionality to that type without incurring the runtime overhead associated with creating new objects. Value classes are designed to be very efficient and minimize memory and runtime overhead by using compiler optimizations.

29.

Define macro in Scala and how it differs from a regular function?

In Scala, a macro is a mechanism that allows you to write code that operates on the abstract syntax tree (AST) of the program at compile time. Macros are a form of metaprogramming that enables you to generate and manipulate code dynamically during the compilation process.

Key differences between macros and regular functions:

Compile-time Execution: Macros are executed at compile time, whereas regular functions are executed at runtime. This means macros have access to the program's abstract syntax tree during compilation, allowing them to generate and manipulate code before it's transformed into bytecode.

Code Generation: Macros generate code that is inserted into the program during compilation. This can be used for a wide range of tasks, such as automatic derivation of type class instances, reducing boilerplate, and enhancing type safety.

Static Typing: Macros operate within the Scala type system, ensuring that generated code is type-safe and adheres to the language's rules.

Performance: Macros can optimize code generation to improve runtime performance, as the generated code can be tailored to specific use cases.

Complexity: Writing and understanding macros requires a good understanding of the Scala reflection API and metaprogramming concepts. Regular functions are generally simpler to write and maintain.

30.

What is the difference between an inner class and a nested class in Scala?

inner vs nested class.webp

31.

What is type class hierarchy?

In Scala, a type class hierarchy refers to the organization of type classes and their relationships. A type class is a trait that defines a set of operations or behaviors that can be applied to different types. The type class hierarchy represents the relationships between various type classes.

A type class hierarchy can be built by defining a set of implicit instances of the type class for different types. Each type class instance provides the implementation of the operations defined by the type class for a specific type. By defining these instances, you establish the relationship between the type class and the types it can operate on.

32.

How does Scala support the creation of DSLs?

Scala supports creation of Domain Specific Language through

  • A compositions of its powerful syntax
  • Higher-order functions
  • Implicit parameters

33.

What is the use of phantom type in Scala?

Phantom type is used to encode extra information which is presented in the type system that information can be used further for static verification. A phantom type does not have a corresponding runtime representation and is used solely for compile-time checks.

Phantom types allow you to attach additional constraints or properties to values at the type level, providing a way to enforce certain conditions statically. By using phantom types, you can catch errors or ensure certain invariants are maintained at compile-time, reducing the possibility of runtime errors.

34.

Give one example of Functor and Monoid?

functor and monoid.webp

35.

Differentiate between a context bound and an implicit parameter in Scala?

context bound vs implicit.webp

36.

How does a dependent type differ from a type parameter?

A dependent type depends on a value and is resolved at compile time based on a specific value, unlike a type parameter. Dependent type gives you more accurate results as compared to the type parameter and allows for more expressive type signature.
Dependent types and type parameters are both features in programming languages that deal with types, but they serve different purposes and have distinct characteristics. Dependent types are often found in languages designed with formal verification and proof systems in mind, while type parameters are more commonly used for code reuse and abstraction.

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Advanced Scala interview questions and answers

1.

Give one difference between an @unchecked annotation and a @tailrec annotation in Scala?

unchecked vs tailrec annotation.webp

2.

Differentiate between a type parameter and a type member in Scala?

type parameter vs type member.webp

3.

Explain recursion through a program.

recursion-scala.webp

4.

What is the difference between the apply method and the update method in Scala?

apply vs update method.webp

5.

What is a higher-rank type in Scala?

In Scala, a higher-rank type involves quantification over type constructors. It is used to define polymorphic functions and only expects a type constructor that has a higher kind. With it, you can abstract over type constructors themselves rather than specific types. Thus you are able to write generic code that is polymorphic over concrete types and type constructors alike. Here higher-rank types are denoted using universally quantified type parameters, frequently represented by the forall quantifier.

By using higher-rank types, you can generate more generic and flexible code that can work over a wide range of type constructors, such as lists, trees, options, etc., without being tied to specific concrete types.

6.

Differentiate between the Reader and Writer monads in Scala?

reader-vs-writer-monads.webp

7.

What is the difference between an abstract class and a sealed trait in Scala?

abstract class-vs-sealed trait.webp

8.

Differentiate between a type class and a type trait in Scala?

type class vs type trait.webp

9.

What is the difference between a view and a stream in Scala?

view-vs-stream.webp

10.

How does a self-type differ from inheritance?

Inheritance is a way in which new classes already have previous class properties but self type does not inherit the properties and it is used to implement the cake pattern.

self type-vs-inheritance.webp

11.

Differentiate between a path-dependent type and a dependent method type in Scala?

path-dependednt-vs-dependent.webp

12.

Give one difference between type projection and type refinement in Scala?

type projection-vs-type refinement.webp

13.

Differentiate between type erasure and reification in Scala?

type erasure vs reification.webp

14.

What is an abstract type member in Scala?

In Scala, an abstract type member is a member that is declared within a trait or abstract class that constitutes an unknown or unspecified type. It is similar to abstract method, but instead of defining a method signature, it defines a type signature. The abstract type members are declared in traits, class, and subclasses and they are associated with a concrete type in the concrete class or object that extends the trait.

15.

Define higher-kinded types in Scala, and how are they useful?

In Scala the higher-kinded types are those that take type constructors as type parameters. These are useful for abstracting over container-like structures, such as collections and monads, and allowing generic code to be written that can work with any type of constructor that satisfies a certain set of constraints.

16.

How does Scala support compile-time metaprogramming with macros?

Scala supports compile-time metaprogramming with macros through its macro system, which is based on a combination of features including macros, quasiquotes, and reflection. Macros in Scala are functions that operate on the abstract syntax tree (AST) of the program at compile time. They can generate, modify, or analyze code before it's transformed into bytecode.

Scala's macro system is powerful and flexible, allowing you to perform a wide range of tasks, such as:

Boilerplate Reduction: Generate repetitive code or boilerplate automatically, reducing redundancy and improving maintainability.

Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs): Create domain-specific languages or domain-specific constructs by generating specialized code.

Type-Level Programming: Manipulate types and type information at compile time to achieve advanced type-level programming.

Code Analysis: Analyze code for patterns, potential errors, or compliance with coding standards.

17.

Differentiate between a monad and a functor in Scala, and how are they useful?

Functor-vs-monad.webp

18.

Explain the lazy initialization of objects and classes handled by Scala.

In Scala, lazy initialization means the delayed initialization of objects or classes until their values are accessed for the first time. This means that the initialization process is postponed until the time it is needed, which improves performance and resource utilization.

Lazy initialization is helpful when dealing with expensive or time-consuming operations, such as reading from a database, performing complex calculations, or loading large resources.

19.

Differentiate between a view, a stream, and an iterator in Scala?

view-stream-iterator.webp

20.

How does Scala support tail call optimization?

To avoid stack overflow errors, Scala uses tail call optimization. This optimization is achieved using the @tailrec annotation, and it uses the same stack rather than issuing another stack. It ensures that a function is tail recursive and will be optimized by the compiler.

21.

Differentiate between currying and partial application in Scala?

currying-vs-partial application.webp

22.

How does Scala handle implicit conversions?

In implicit conversion, if it is needed in the context of converting a value of one type to another, it authorizes it and converts automatically by using the "implicit" keyword.

With implicit conversions the compiler can automatically convert values from one type to another when needed. They are defined using the implicit keyword and can be used to provide seamless type conversions without the need for explicit conversions in the code.

So how Scala handles implicit conversions:

Implicit Conversions Scope: Implicit conversions are defined within a specific scope, such as within an object, class, or trait.

Implicit Conversion Method: An implicit conversion is basically an implicit method that takes a single parameter of the type to be converted and returns the target type.

Implicit Conversion Invocation: The Scala compiler will automatically invoke an implicit conversion if it discovers one that can resolve a type mismatch.

Conversion Rules: With implicit conversions, certain rules must be followed.

  • Implicit conversions must be in scope, either through direct definition or import.
  • Conversions can be defined as implicit def or implicit class.
  • The compiler will not apply multiple conversions automatically in a chain. It will only apply one implicit conversion to resolve the type mismatch.

Common Use Cases: Implicit conversions are commonly used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Adapting types to support specific operations or interfaces.
  • Providing syntactic enhancements or DSL-like features.
  • Enabling type enrichment or adding methods to existing types.

23.

Mention different ways to create an instance of a class in Scala.

There are multiple ways to create an instance of a class in Scala but the first two methods are commonly used:

  1. Using the "new" keyword: val obj = new MyClass()
  2. Using the "apply" method: val obj = MyClass()
  3. Using factory method: val obj = MyClass.create()
  4. Using case class constructor: val obj = MyCaseClass( arg1, arg2)

24.

How does Scala handle implicit resolution in the presence of ambiguity?

When several implicit values are in a queue, and the compiler is not able to determine which one to take first, it reports an ambiguity error. These types of errors are handled by explicitly giving the implicit value or erasing one of the ambiguous implicit values from the scope.

On the other hand, by defining one implicit value as more accurate than others it helps in resolving the ambiguity by using the implicit priority rule.

25.

Differentiate between the IO and Task monads in Scala?

IO monads-vs-task monads.webp

26.

How does Scala handle polymorphic function values?

The main polymorphic feature is to convert any data into more than one form in Scala; also, it is implemented by virtual functions. This means you can use type function parameters and create polymorphic function values in Scala.

These functions' return types depend on the type parameter. Polymorphic functions used in higher-order functions such as map, flatMap, and fold.

27.

Differentiate between an opaque type and a type alias in Scala?

opaque type.webp

28.

Differentiate between a type constructor and a type parameterized trait in Scala?

type constructor-vs-type parameterized.webp

29.

Differentiate between the Product and Serializable traits in Scala?

product-vs-serializable.webp

30.

How does the literal type differ from a value type in Scala?

A type that is equivalent to a specific literal value, such as boolean, number, or string, is known as the literal type in Scala. These are formed by specifically annotating values with their type. Literals are used to provide extra constant commitment about program accuracy.

A literal type makes sure that a particular value is transferred as a parameter to a function; on the other hand, a value type corresponds to a particular value, but that is not compulsory a literal value.

31.

Differentiate between a type and a class tag in Scala?

type vs class tag.webp

32.

Differentiate between a case object and an object in Scala?

case object-vs-object.webp

33.

What is exception handling? Give example.

Exception handling in Scala is the process of handling and managing runtime exceptions that may occur during the execution of a program. It provides a method to tackle exceptional situations that can lead to unexpected program termination.

Scala provides built-in support for exception handling using try-catch-finally blocks. The general syntax for exception handling with Scala is,

exception handling java.webp

34.

Give a difference between Try-catch and Either.

try-catch-vs-either.webp

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Wrapping up

To conclude, preparing for a Scala interview is the first step towards securing a Scala developer position. The interview questions mostly entail testing your knowledge of Scala's core concepts, syntax, functional programming, object-oriented programming, and other related topics. Also, practice the coding examples given above, check what Scala libraries are there, its frameworks and also remain updated with new trends in Scala development.

Also, you can apply to Turing if you are looking for a Scala job in elite US companies. All you will need to do is take the Turing test. Conversely, if you are a recruiter, and want to skip this process and have hours of your hiring time, you can opt for Turing too which helps you source, vet, match, and manage the world's best Scala developers remotely.

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