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100+ PHP interview questions and answers for 2024

Are you a professional PHP developer who aims to find a place in a top Silicon Valley company or a recruiter looking to gather an exceptional team of top PHP developers? If yes, then make a stop here. We have carefully curated a list of PHP interview questions and answers to give you some idea about the type of PHP interview questions you can ask or be asked for your PHP developer interview questions.

100+ PHP interview questions and answers for 2024

Last updated on Jul 23, 2024

PHP, known as the Hypertext Preprocessor, is one of the most widely used programming languages for web development. It powers over 70% of websites on the internet, making it a crucial skill for developers and a key requirement for hiring managers in the digital landscape.

In this blog, we have curated the top 100 PHP questions and answers to help both developers and hiring managers grasp the underlying concepts better. For PHP developers, this blog will serve as a valuable reference to help you prepare for interviews, expand your knowledge, and stay up-to-date with the latest trends in the PHP ecosystem. For hiring managers, this blog will aid you in assessing candidates effectively, ensuring that you select the most competent and skilled individuals for your organization.

Basic PHP interview questions and answers

1.

What is the relationship between PHP and HTML?

PHP scripts can generate HTML, and information can be passed from HTML to PHP.
HTML is a client-side language, while PHP is a server-side language. So PHP runs on the server and returns texts, objects, and arrays, which we then utilize to display the values in HTML. This engagement aids in bridging gaps and the effective usage of both languages.

2.

Talk about the significance of Parser in PHP?

A PHP parser is a piece of software that translates source code into computer-readable code. The parser converts whatever set of instructions we provide in the form of PHP code into a machine-readable format.
The token gets all() functions in PHP that can be used to parse PHP code.

3.

What do you mean by hashing passwords?

Hashing a password is a method of transforming a single password into a hashed password string. The hashed password is usually one-way, meaning we can't move from the hashed password to the original password. So the question is why we needed to utilize hashing to perform all of this; why do extra work when we can just record our passwords as a simple string in the database? All of this is being done just to improve security so that hackers do not steal credentials from our valued site. md5, crypt, sha1, and bcrypt are some of the most often used cryptographic algorithms in PHP. The bcrypt hashing algorithm is the most widely used presently.

4.

What are the main types of errors?

The primary types of errors are:

  • Notices: Notices are non-critical errors that can occur while the script is being executed. Users won’t see these. Using an undefined variable as an example.
  • Warnings: Warnings are more important than notices. The script execution is not interrupted by warnings. These are viewable by default. Include() a file that does not exist, for example.
  • Syntax or Parsing error:- A forgotten quote mark, a missing semicolon at the end of a line, missing parenthesis, or excess characters are all examples of syntax errors. The PHP parser is unable to read and comprehend the code correctly, resulting in a parse error.
  • Fatal: This is the most serious error of kind, and when it happens, the script's execution is immediately terminated. An example of a fatal error is accessing a non-existent object's property or calling need() on a non-existent file.

5.

What are the processes for setting up a new database with MySQL and PHP?

The 4 primary steps used to create a new MySQL database in PHP are given below:

  • The PHP script is used to establish a connection to the MySQL server.
  • The connection has been verified. You can test the connection by writing an example query.
  • The queries for the database are typed in and then saved in a string variable.
  • Then, one by one, the constructed queries will be run.

6.

In PHP, what is PDO?

PHP Data Object (PDO) is an acronym for PHP Data Object. PDO is a PHP extension that includes a core PDO class as well as database-specific drivers. Any database written for the PDO driver can be accessed using the PDO extension. PDO drivers are available for databases such as FreeTDS, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, Sybase, Oracle Call Interface, Firebird/Interbase 6, and PostgreSQL.

It provides a data-access abstraction layer that is lightweight and vendor-neutral. As a result, the function to issue queries and fetch data will be the same regardless of which database we utilize. It also concentrates on data access abstraction rather than database abstraction.

7.

What is PHP and what are the advantages of using PHP?

PHP is a widely-used scripting language primarily designed for web development. It stands for "Hypertext Preprocessor" and is embedded within HTML code. PHP enables dynamic content creation, database connectivity, and server-side scripting. With its extensive community and rich set of features, it has become one of the most popular languages for building dynamic websites and web applications.

PHP offers several advantages for web development:

  • It has a low learning curve, which makes it accessible to beginners.
  • It's an open-source language with a large community, and has extensive documentation and support.
  • It is platform-independent, which means it can run on various operating systems.
  • It has robust database integration, offers great performance, and has a wide range of frameworks and libraries available for efficient development.

8.

What are the rules for naming a PHP variable?

  1. Variable names must start with a dollar sign ($) followed by a letter or underscore.
  2. After the initial dollar sign, you can use any combination of letters, numbers, and underscores.
  3. Variable names are case-sensitive, so $myVariable and $myvariable are treated as different variables.
  4. You cannot use reserved words or PHP keywords such as if, else, foreach, etc., as variable names.
  5. Variable names should be descriptive and meaningful to improve code readability.

Here are some examples of valid variable names in PHP:

Image 11-08-23 at 5.02 PM.webp

9.

What is a PHP file?

A PHP file is a text file that contains PHP code, typically with a .PHP extension. It is an integral part of building dynamic web pages and applications. A PHP file can include a combination of HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and PHP code. This versatility enables developers to integrate dynamic functionalities with the presentation layer.
When a client's web browser requests a PHP file, the server processes the PHP code within the file before sending the final output to the browser. This server-side execution allows developers to create dynamic and interactive content for the users.

10.

What is a PHP function?

A PHP function is a named block of code that performs a specific task and can be reused throughout a program. It encapsulates a set of instructions, accepts input parameters (optional), and can return a value (optional).

Functions help organize code, improve code reusability, and make it easier to maintain and debug. PHP provides a range of built-in functions and also allows users to create their own custom functions.

11.

What are the different types of variables in PHP?

There are several types of variables in PHP. The basic variable types include integers (whole numbers), floats (decimal numbers), strings (sequences of characters), booleans (true or false values), and arrays (ordered collections of values).

Additionally, PHP supports more complex data types such as objects (instances of classes), resources (references to external resources), and null (variables with no value assigned).

12.

What is the difference between require() and include() in PHP?

Here are the major differences between require() and include() functions in PHP:

Image 11-08-23 at 5.05 PM.webp

Note: Both require() and include() are used for including external PHP files into another PHP file. The main difference lies in their error handling and how they handle file inclusion failures.

13.

What is the syntax for defining a constant in PHP?

In PHP, constants are defined using the define() function or the const keyword. The define() function syntax is:

define('CONSTANT_NAME', value, case_insensitive);

The const keyword syntax is:

const CONSTANT_NAME = value;

Replace CONSTANT_NAME with the desired name of the constant. It should follow the naming conventions for PHP variables. Replace value with the actual value you want to assign to the constant. For the define() function, the optional case_insensitive parameter is a boolean value that determines whether the constant name should be treated as case-insensitive. If set to true, the constant name can be used in any case (upper, lower, or mixed). If omitted or set to false, the constant name is case-sensitive, and its usage must match the case defined during its declaration.

14.

How do you declare a variable in PHP?

In PHP, you can declare a variable using the dollar sign ($) followed by the variable name. You don't need to specify the variable type explicitly. For example, to declare a variable called "name" and assign it a value, you would write: $name = "John";

15.

What is the difference between echo and print in PHP?

In PHP, both echo and print are used to output data. echo is a language construct and does not require parentheses. It can output multiple strings at once, separated by commas. print is a function in PHP and must be used with parentheses. It can only output a single string at a time.

echo does not have a return value. It means that echo does not return anything and, therefore, cannot be used as part of an expression. On the other hand, print returns 1 after outputting the string successfully. This makes it different from echo, which does not have a return value.

16.

What are the different types of Array in PHP?

There are three main types of arrays of PHP: indexed arrays, associative arrays, and multidimensional arrays.

  • Indexed arrays use numeric keys to access elements and are created using square brackets ([]).
  • Associative arrays use key-value pairs, where keys are strings, and elements are accessed using the keys.
  • Multidimensional arrays are arrays that contain other arrays, creating a hierarchical structure with multiple levels of nesting.

17.

What is a PHP session?

A PHP session is a mechanism that allows you to store and retrieve data for a user across multiple requests. It enables the server to maintain stateful information about the user. When a session is started, a unique session ID is generated and stored on the user's browser, while the associated data is stored on the server. This enables persistent data storage and user tracking during a browsing session.

18.

What is a for loop in PHP?

In PHP, a for loop is a control structure used for iterative execution. It allows you to execute a block of code a specific number of times. The for loop consists of three parts: initialization, condition, and increment/decrement.

It follows the syntax

for (initialization; condition; increment/decrement) { // code }

where the initialization sets the starting value, the condition defines the loop termination, and the increment/decrement updates the loop variable in each iteration.

19.

What is the difference between unset() and unlink() in PHP?

The difference between unset() and unlink() in PHP is:

Image 11-08-23 at 5.19 PM.webp

20.

How do you start a PHP session?

To start a PHP session, you can use the session_start() function. This function initializes a new or existing session and allows you to store and retrieve data across multiple pages.

Call session_start() at the beginning of your PHP script. You can then set session variables and access them throughout your application.

21.

What is the purpose of the :: operator in PHP?

In PHP, the double colon (::) operator is called the scope resolution operator. It is used to access static methods, properties, and constants of a class without the need for an instance of that class. It allows for direct access to class-level elements, providing a way to organize and utilize shared resources across different instances of the same class.

22.

How do you destroy a PHP session?

To destroy a PHP session, you can use the session_destroy() function. This function terminates the current session and removes all session data.

Additionally, you can unset individual session variables using the unset() function. After calling session_destroy(), the session is no longer available and a new session can be started if needed.

23.

What is a PHP cookie?

A PHP cookie is a small piece of data stored on the user's computer by the web server. It is sent along with each request from the browser to the server, allowing the server to identify and personalize the user experience. Cookies are commonly used to store user preferences, session IDs, and other information. They can be set, accessed, and modified using PHP's setcookie() and $_COOKIE superglobal variables, respectively.

24.

What is the difference between ASP.NET and PHP?

Here are the differences between ASP.NET and PHP:

Image 11-08-23 at 5.37 PM_11zon (1).webp

25.

What is the syntax for a foreach loop in PHP?

In PHP, the syntax for a foreach loop is as follows:

Image 11-08-23 at 5.41 PM.webp

In this syntax:

$array is the array you want to iterate over.
$value is a variable that represents the current element of the array in each iteration. You can choose any valid variable name for this.
the code within the curly braces {} is the block of code that will be executed for each element in the array.

26.

How do you create a PHP cookie?

To create a PHP cookie, you can use the setcookie() function. It takes multiple parameters including the cookie name, value, expiration time, path, domain, and whether the cookie should be sent over HTTPS only.

You can set the desired cookie values by providing these parameters. Once set, the cookie will be stored on the user's browser and sent with subsequent requests to the server.

27.

What is the difference between strpos() and strstr() in PHP?

The differences between strpos() and strstr() in PHP are:

Image 11-08-23 at 5.44 PM.webp

28.

Write the common applications of using include and require in PHP?

In PHP, include and require are used to import code from other PHP files into the current script. The common applications of using them are modularity and code reusability. Include allows the script to continue running even if the included file is missing or fails to load, making it suitable for optional components. Conversely, require is used for essential components, halting execution if the file is missing or fails to load.

These constructs are invaluable in breaking large codebases into smaller, manageable pieces, promoting maintainability and reducing redundancy by reusing code across multiple files or projects.

29.

How to get the file extension in PHP?

Image 11-08-23 at 7.51 PM.webp

30.

What is a namespace in PHP?

In PHP, a namespace is a way to organize and encapsulate code elements, such as classes, functions, and constants, to avoid naming conflicts. It provides a hierarchical structure for declaring and accessing these elements.

Using namespaces, you can group related code together and ensure the uniqueness of names across different parts of your application or between libraries. Namespaces are declared using the namespace keyword.

31.

What is an abstract class in PHP?

In PHP, an abstract class is a class that cannot be instantiated directly and serves as a blueprint for derived classes. It is defined using the abstract keyword.
Abstract classes may contain abstract methods which are declared but not implemented in the abstract class itself. Derived classes must provide implementations for these abstract methods. Abstract classes are useful for creating a common interface and enforcing method implementation in derived classes.

32.

What is an interface in PHP?

In PHP, an interface is a contract that defines a set of methods that a class must implement. It specifies the method names, parameters, and return types without providing the actual implementation. Classes can implement multiple interfaces, allowing them to fulfill multiple contracts simultaneously.

Interfaces enable the achievement of abstraction, polymorphism, and code reusability by ensuring consistency and providing a clear contract for interacting with objects.

33.

What is the difference between GET and POST methods in PHP?

The differences between GET and POST methods in PHP are:

Image 11-08-23 at 7.54 PM.webp

34.

What is the syntax for defining a function in PHP?

The syntax for defining a function in PHP is:

Image 11-08-23 at 7.56 PM.webp

The function keyword is used to declare a function, followed by the function name and a pair of parentheses containing any parameters the function accepts.

You can write the code to be executed inside the function body. Optionally, you can use a return statement to return a value from the function.

35.

What is a trait in PHP?

In PHP, a trait is a mechanism that allows for code reuse in classes by providing a way to define methods that can be included in multiple classes. Traits are declared using the trait keyword and can contain methods, properties, and other class elements.

They can be used alongside inheritance to incorporate reusable code into classes without the limitations of single inheritance. Traits enable horizontal code composition and promote code modularity.

Image 11-08-23 at 7.57 PM.webp

36.

What is a static method in PHP?

In PHP, a static method is one that belongs to a class rather than an instance of that class. It can be accessed directly using the class name without needing to create an object of that class.

Static methods are declared using the static keyword and can only access other static properties or invoke other static methods within the class. They are commonly used for utility functions or operations that don't require object-specific data.

37.

What is the use of the self keyword in PHP?

In PHP, the self keyword is used to refer to the current class within the class itself. It allows access to static properties, constants, and methods defined within the same class. Unlike $this, which refers to the current instance of the class, the self is used in the context of the class definition itself.

The self keyword is commonly used for accessing static members and invoking static methods.

38.

What is the use of the static keyword in PHP?

In PHP, the static keyword is used to define properties and methods that belong to a class itself rather than its instances. Static members can be accessed directly using the class name without the need for object instantiation.

They are shared among all instances of the class and allow for the storage and retrieval of data at the class level. Static methods are commonly used for utility functions or operations that don't require object-specific data.

39.

What is an anonymous function in PHP?

In PHP, an anonymous function, also known as a lambda function, is a function without a specified name. It can be defined inline and assigned to a variable or passed as an argument to another function.

Anonymous functions are useful for creating callbacks, implementing simple logic without creating a separate named function, and enabling functional programming concepts. They provide flexibility and concise code in certain scenarios as listed below:

Callback functions: Anonymous functions are commonly used as callback functions, which are functions that can be passed as arguments to other functions. For example, when working with array functions like array_map(), array_filter(), or usort(), you can use anonymous functions to define the logic on-the-fly without the need to create a separate named function.

Image 11-08-23 at 8.01 PM.webp

Closures: Anonymous functions in PHP can be used to create closures. A closure is an anonymous function that captures variables from its surrounding scope, allowing you to use those variables within the function, even if they are not passed as arguments explicitly.

Image 11-08-23 at 8.02 PM.webp

Event handling: When dealing with event-driven programming or handling events in frameworks, anonymous functions are often used to define actions that should be executed when an event occurs.

Image 11-08-23 at 8.04 PM.webp

40.

What is the difference between session and cookie in PHP?

Session and cookie have several differences:

Image 11-08-23 at 8.06 PM.webp

41.

What is the syntax for declaring a variable in PHP?

The syntax for declaring a variable in PHP is:

Image 11-08-23 at 8.08 PM.webp

The dollar sign ($) is used to indicate that a variable is being declared. After the dollar sign, you provide a name for the variable, followed by an equal sign (=) and the value you want to assign to the variable. The value can be a literal value (e.g., a string, number) or the result of an expression.

42.

What is a closure in PHP?

In PHP, a closure, also known as an anonymous function with access to its own scope, is a special type of function that can capture and retain the environment in which it was defined. It allows the function to access variables from its surrounding scope, even after the outer function has finished executing.

Closures are commonly used for creating callbacks, implementing higher-order functions, and providing encapsulation of functionality.

43.

What is a generator in PHP?

In PHP, a generator is a special type of function that allows you to iterate over a set of values without needing to generate and store all the values in memory at once. It uses the yield keyword to produce a sequence of values on each iteration.

Generators are memory-efficient and useful for working with large or infinite sequences such as database results and streaming data.

44.

What is the difference between an array and a list in PHP?

An array in PHP is a data structure that stores an ordered collection of elements. It can be accessed using numerical indices or associative keys. PHP arrays can contain elements of different data types, and they are dynamic, meaning you can add or remove elements as needed. Arrays in PHP are versatile and commonly used for various tasks, such as storing sets of data, implementing data structures, and managing collections.

In PHP, a list is not a distinct data structure. However, developers sometimes refer to an array with consecutive numeric indices (0, 1, 2, ...) as a list. Essentially, a list-like behavior can be achieved using a numeric array with consecutive integer keys starting from 0. PHP arrays can be treated as lists when the keys are used as indices to access elements.

45.

What is the difference between class and object in PHP?

The differences between class and object in PHP are as follows:

Image 11-08-23 at 8.12 PM.webp

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Intermediate PHP interview questions and answers

1.

What is the difference between array() and [] in PHP?

In PHP, the difference between array() and [] lies in their syntax. Both are used to declare an array, but [] is a shorthand syntax introduced in PHP 5.4. It provides a more concise way to define arrays.

array() in PHP:

  • array() is the traditional syntax used in older versions of PHP to create an array.
  • It is a language construct and not a function, so the use of parentheses is not required but allowed.
  • It can be used to create an empty array or an array with elements.

[] in PHP:

  • [] is a shorthand syntax introduced in PHP 5.4.
  • It is a more concise way to define arrays and is preferred in modern PHP code.
  • It can also be used to create an empty array or an array with elements.

2.

What is the syntax for accessing a session variable in PHP?

In PHP, you can access a session variable using the $_SESSION superglobal array. To access a specific session variable, you can use the variable name as the key within the $_SESSION array. Here's an example:

Image 11-08-23 at 8.17 PM.webp

3.

How do you sort an array in PHP?

In PHP, you can sort an array using various sorting functions. One common approach is to use the sort() function to sort the array in ascending order. For sorting in descending order, you can use rsort().

If you want to preserve the original keys, you can use asort() for ascending order and arsort() for descending order. Additionally, you can use ksort() and krsort() for sorting by keys.

4.

How do you search for a value in an array in PHP?

In PHP, you can search for a value in an array using the in_array() function. It takes two parameters: the value you want to search for and the array to search in. It returns true if the value is found and false otherwise. If you need to retrieve the corresponding key, you can use array_search() which returns the key if found and false otherwise

5.

What is a multidimensional array in PHP?

In PHP, a multidimensional array is an array that contains other arrays as its elements. It allows you to store data in a tabular format with rows and columns. Each element within the main array can be an array itself, forming a nested structure.

This enables the representation of complex data structures such as matrices, tables, or hierarchical data. Accessing elements in a multidimensional array involves specifying the corresponding indices for each level.

6.

What is a foreach loop in PHP?

In PHP, a foreach loop is used to iterate over elements in an array or an object. It simplifies the process of traversing arrays by automatically handling the iteration and accessing each element within the array.

It follows the syntax

foreach ($array as $value) { // code }

where $array is the array being iterated and $value represents the current element being processed in each iteration.

7.

What is the syntax for a for loop in PHP?

Image 11-08-23 at 8.21 PM.webp

8.

What is the difference between static website and dynamic website?

The following are the differences between static and dynamic websites:

Image 11-08-23 at 8.34 PM.webp

9.

What is the syntax for including a file in PHP?

The syntax for including a file in PHP is:

include 'filename.PHP';

The include statement includes the specified file and continues the script execution even if the file is not found. The required statement does the same but halts the script execution with a fatal error if the file is not found.

You can also use include_once or require_once to ensure that the file is included only once.

10.

What is a while loop in PHP?

In PHP, a while loop is a control structure used for iterative execution based on a condition. It repeatedly executes a block of code as long as the specified condition remains true. The syntax is while (condition) { // code }, where the condition is evaluated before each iteration. If the condition is initially false, the code within the loop is never executed.

11.

What is a do-while loop in PHP?

In PHP, a do-while loop is a control structure used for iterative execution based on a condition. It is similar to a while loop, but it guarantees that the code block is executed at least once before checking the condition.

The syntax is

do { // code } while (condition);

where the code block is executed first and then the condition is evaluated for subsequent iterations.

12.

What is the use of the break statement in PHP?

In PHP, the break statement is used to terminate the execution of a loop or switch statement. When encountered, it immediately exits the loop or switch and program control moves to the next statement after the loop or switch block.

It is commonly used to exit a loop prematurely based on a certain condition or to break out of a switch statement once a desired case is encountered.

13.

What is the use of the continue statement in PHP?

In PHP, the continue statement is used within loops to skip the rest of the current iteration and move to the next iteration. When encountered, it immediately jumps to the beginning of the loop and evaluates the loop condition again.
It is often used to skip certain iterations based on specific conditions, allowing you to selectively process or skip certain elements in the loop.

14.

What is the difference between == and === in PHP?

In PHP, the == and === operators are used for equality comparison. The == operator checks for equality of values, while the === operator checks for both equality of values and data types. In other words, == performs type coercion, converting operands to a common type if necessary, while === requires the values to be identical in both value and data type.

15.

What is the difference between variables and constants in PHP?

Here are the differences between variables and constants in PHP:

Image 11-08-23 at 8.45 PM.webp

16.

What is the difference between != and <> in PHP?

In PHP, the != and <> operators are used for inequality comparison. Both operators check if the values on either side are not equal. The only difference is the syntax; != is the more commonly used operator, while <> is less common but has the same functionality.

Both operators can be used interchangeably to compare values and determine inequality in PHP.

17.

What is PEAR in PHP?

PEAR (PHP Extension and Application Repository) is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components. It provides a structured way to package and distribute libraries, classes, and other code components written in PHP.
PEAR offers a collection of pre-built and well-tested packages that can be easily integrated into PHP applications, saving developers time and effort by promoting code reuse and standardization.

However, it is essential to note that the usage and popularity of PEAR have decreased over time, and more modern package managers like Composer have gained widespread adoption in the PHP community. Composer provides a more modern and efficient approach to package management, making it easier for developers to include external libraries and manage project dependencies.

While PEAR is still functional and some projects may continue to use it, it is advisable for new projects to consider using Composer due to its widespread adoption, ease of use, and compatibility with the latest PHP ecosystem.

18.

What is the use of the instanceof operator in PHP?

In PHP, the instanceof operator is used to determine if an object is an instance of a specific class or implements a particular interface. It checks the inheritance hierarchy and returns true if the object is an instance of the specified class or a descendant of it.

This operator is helpful when you need to conditionally perform actions based on the type of an object in your code.

19.

What is the difference between $message and $$message?

The difference between $message and $$message in PHP is that $message is a regular variable that holds a value, while $$message is a variable variable. With $$message, the value of $message is used as the name of another variable whose value is accessed.

Essentially, $$message allows you to dynamically create and access variables based on the value of another variable.

20.

Compare the differences between PHP 5 and PHP 7.

PHP 5 and PHP 7 are two major versions of the PHP programming language, with PHP 5 being an older version and PHP 7 being a more recent one. Here are the key differences between PHP 5 and PHP 7:

Performance:
PHP 7 introduced significant performance improvements over PHP 5. PHP 7's Zend Engine 3.0, the core of PHP's execution, includes a new opcode called "PHPNG" that results in much faster execution of PHP scripts compared to the older PHP 5's opcode.

Speed:
Due to the performance enhancements, PHP 7 can handle a higher number of requests per second than PHP 5, making web applications built with PHP 7 more responsive and capable of handling increased traffic.

Memory Usage:
PHP 7 is more memory-efficient than PHP 5, leading to reduced memory consumption by PHP applications. This is particularly beneficial for hosting multiple applications on a single server.

Type Declarations:
PHP 7 introduced scalar type declarations that allow developers to specify the data types of function parameters and return values, helping to catch type-related errors earlier in the development process. PHP 5 only supported type hints for classes and arrays.

Return Type Declarations:
PHP 7 introduced the ability to declare the return type of a function, providing better clarity on the expected data returned by functions. PHP 5 did not support return type declarations.

Error Handling:
PHP 7 introduced an improved error handling mechanism with the Throwable interface, which makes exception handling more consistent and flexible. This was not present in PHP 5.

21.

What is a constructor in PHP?

In PHP, a constructor is a special method within a class that is automatically called when an object of that class is created. Its purpose is to initialize the object's properties or perform necessary setup operations.
The constructor method is defined with the __construct() function name. It allows you to ensure that certain actions are executed when an object is instantiated. It provides a way to set up the object's initial state.

22.

What is a destructor in PHP?

In PHP, a destructor is a special method within a class that is automatically called when an object is no longer referenced or when the script execution ends. The destructor method is defined with the __destruct() function name.
It is used to perform necessary cleanup operations or release resources held by the object such as closing database connections and freeing memory.

23.

What is the meaning of ‘escaping to PHP’?

Escaping in PHP refers to the process of securing a string to ensure that it is safe for use in PHP's syntax. When a string in PHP contains special symbols or characters, such as backslashes, quotes, or other escape characters, they must be escaped before using them in PHP code. This is usually achieved by placing a backslash before the character. For instance, to print a double quotation mark (") within a string containing double quotes, you can escape it using a backslash like this: echo "She said "Hello world"";

Escaping strings is necessary to prevent syntax errors in your PHP code, which can lead to security vulnerabilities if not handled correctly. It is helpful when working with user input or data from external sources, like databases that may contain malicious code or characters that could break your PHP code.

24.

What is a magic method in PHP?

In PHP, a magic method is a special method with a predefined name that provides class-specific functionality. It is automatically invoked by PHP in response to certain events or actions.

Magic methods start with a double underscore (__) prefix such as __construct() for the constructor or __toString() for converting an object to a string. They allow developers to implement custom behavior and handle specific scenarios within PHP classes.

25.

What is the use of the __toString() method in PHP?

In PHP, the __toString() method is a magic method that is automatically called when an object is treated as a string. It allows you to define custom logic to convert an object into a string representation.

By implementing __toString(), you can control how the object is displayed when it is echoed, concatenated with a string, or used in any other context where a string is expected.

26.

What is the use of the __set() method in PHP?

The __set() method in PHP is a magic method used for intercepting and handling attempts to write to inaccessible or undefined properties within an object. It is automatically called when a property is set that is not accessible or does not exist.

By implementing __set(), you can define custom logic to handle property assignments such as performing validations and storing the value in a specific way.

27.

What is the use of the __get() method in PHP?

In PHP, the __get() method is a magic method used for intercepting and handling attempts to read inaccessible or undefined properties within an object. It is automatically called when a property is accessed that is not accessible or does not exist.
With __get(), you can define custom logic to handle property access such as returning computed values or retrieving data from alternative sources.

28.

What is the use of the __call() method in PHP?

The __call() method in PHP is a magic method used for intercepting and handling calls to inaccessible or undefined methods within an object. It is automatically called when a method is invoked that is not accessible or does not exist.

With __call(), you can define custom logic to handle method calls, allowing for dynamic method dispatch, method overloading, and handling unknown method invocations.

29.

What is the use of the __clone() method in PHP?

In PHP, the __clone() method is a magic method used for customizing the cloning behavior of an object. It is automatically called when an object is cloned using the clone keyword.

By implementing __clone(), you can define custom logic to control how the object is copied, allowing you to perform deep copies, modify properties, and set up the cloned object in a specific way.

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Advanced PHP interview questions and answers

1.

What is the use of the __sleep() method in PHP?

In PHP, the __sleep() method is a magic method used for customizing the serialization process of an object. It is automatically called when the object is being serialized. For example, when using the serialize() function.

By implementing __sleep(), you can define custom logic to determine which object properties should be serialized. It allows you to exclude sensitive or unnecessary data from the serialized representation of the object.

2.

What is the use of the __wakeup() method in PHP?

The __wakeup() method in PHP is used to reinitialize an object after it has been unserialized. When an object is serialized, its data is transformed into a string format that can be stored or transmitted.

The __wakeup() method allows you to specify how the object should be restored when it is unserialized. This is done by defining necessary reinitialization or setup operations.

3.

What is the use of the static keyword in a class method in PHP?

The static keyword is used in class methods to declare that the method belongs to the class itself, rather than to an instance of the class. This means that the method can be called without creating an object of the class. It is useful when you want to have a method that can be accessed globally without the need for instantiation.

4.

What is the difference between public, private, and protected in PHP?

In PHP, 'public', 'private', and 'protected' are access modifiers used to control the visibility of class properties and methods. These modifiers help maintain encapsulation and control access to class members, enhancing security and code organization.

  • 'Public' allows access from anywhere.
  • 'Private' restricts access only to the class that defines them.
  • 'Protected' allows access to the class and its subclasses.

5.

What is a trait conflict in PHP?

A trait conflict in PHP occurs when two traits that a class uses have methods with the same name. It can cause ambiguity and lead to conflicts when those methods are called.

To resolve the conflict, the class using the traits needs to explicitly define the desired implementation of the conflicting method. The ‘as’ keyword will create an alias while the ‘insteadof’ keyword will exclude one of the conflicting methods.

6.

How to find the length of a string in PHP?

You can find the length of a string in PHP using the strlen() function. Here's how you can use it:

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In this example, the strlen() function calculates and returns the number of characters in the string "Hello, World!", and then the echo statement displays the length of the string. The output will be something like: "The length of the string is: 13". Keep in mind that strlen() returns the number of bytes, not the number of characters, so it may not handle multi-byte characters correctly in all cases (e.g., for Unicode strings). If you're working with multi-byte encodings, you might need to consider using mb_strlen() instead.

7.

How to check if a string contains a specific word in PHP?

You can check if a string contains a specific word in PHP using the strpos() function. Here's an example of how to do it:

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In this example, the strpos() function is used to find the position of the first occurrence of the word "sample" within the string. If the word is found, strpos() returns a non-false value (the position), and the condition in the if statement evaluates to true, indicating that the string contains the word. If the word is not found, strpos() returns false, and the if statement's condition evaluates to false, indicating that the string does not contain the word.

8.

How to convert all characters in a string to uppercase in PHP?

In PHP, you can convert all characters in a string to uppercase using the built-in strtoupper() function. Here's how you can use it:

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In this example, the strtoupper() function takes the input string "Hello, World!" and converts all its characters to uppercase, resulting in the output: "HELLO, WORLD!".

9.

How to convert all characters in a string to lowercase in PHP?

In PHP, you can convert all characters in a string to lowercase using the built-in strtolower() function. Here's how you can use it:

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10.

How to remove white spaces from a string in PHP?

You can remove white spaces from a string in PHP using the str_replace() function or the preg_replace() function with a regular expression. Here are examples of both approaches:

Using str_replace() to remove all white spaces:

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In this example, the str_replace() function replaces all occurrences of a space character with an empty string, effectively removing all white spaces from the input string.

Using preg_replace() with a regular expression to remove all white spaces:

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Here, the regular expression /\s+/ matches one or more white space characters (including spaces, tabs, and line breaks), and preg_replace() replaces them with an empty string. Both of these methods will result in a string without any white spaces.

11.

What are the rules to determine the “truth” of any value which is not already of the Boolean type?

To determine the "truth" of a value that is not already of the Boolean type, the following rules apply:
If the value is a number, it is considered false only if it is exactly equal to zero. Otherwise, it is considered true.

If the value is a string, it is considered false if the string is empty (has zero characters) or if it is the string "0". Otherwise, it is considered true.

Values of type NULL are always considered false.

If the value is an array, it is considered false if it does not contain any other values. Otherwise, it is considered true. For an object, it is considered true if it contains a member variable that has been assigned a value. Valid resources are considered true.

However, some functions may return FALSE if the operation with the resource is unsuccessful. Double values should not be used as Booleans.

12.

How to find the number of words in a string in PHP?

To find the number of words in a string in PHP, you can use the str_word_count() function. Here's how you can use it:

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In this example, the str_word_count() function counts the number of words in the input string "This is a sample string with words." and returns the count. The output will be something like: "The number of words in the string is: 7".

13.

How to check if a string starts with a specific word in PHP?

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14.

How to get the current date and time in PHP?

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15.

How to add days to a date in PHP?

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16.

How to check if a date is a valid date in PHP?

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17.

How to redirect to another page in PHP?

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18.

How to create and destroy a session in PHP?

To create a session,

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To destroy a session,

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19.

How is it possible to set an infinite execution time for PHP script?

To set an infinite execution time for a PHP script, you can use the set_time_limit() function. This function allows you to specify the maximum number of seconds a script is allowed to run. By passing the value 0 as the parameter to set_time_limit(), you effectively remove the time limit and allow the script to run indefinitely.

Here's an example of how to set an infinite execution time for a PHP script using set_time_limit(0):

set_time_limit(0);

It's important to note that setting an infinite execution time may not always be the best option for all scenarios. It can potentially lead to performance issues or cause scripts to run for an excessively long time. Careful consideration should be given to ensure that the script does not consume excessive resources.

Keep in mind that setting the execution time limit may be subject to configuration settings and server restrictions.

20.

How to get the value of a session variable in PHP?

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21.

Explain Late Static Binding in PHP. Provide an example.

Late Static Binding allows static methods to reference the calling class instead of the defining class.

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22.

Describe Type Hinting and its use in PHP. Provide an example.

Type hinting in PHP is a feature that allows you to specify the expected data type of a parameter or return value in a function or method declaration. It helps ensure that the correct data types are passed as arguments to functions and that the correct data types are returned from functions. Type hinting improves code clarity, reduces the risk of type-related errors, and enhances the self-documenting nature of your code.

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23.

What is Output Buffering in PHP? Provide an example.

Output buffering in PHP is a mechanism that allows you to capture the output of PHP code before it is sent to the browser for rendering. Normally, PHP sends output to the browser as soon as it is generated, which can sometimes cause issues if you need to modify or manipulate the output before it's displayed. Output buffering provides a way to gather the output into a buffer and then manipulate or process it before finally sending it to the browser.

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24.

Explain the concept of Middleware in PHP frameworks. Provide an example using PSR-15 Middleware.

Middleware is a design pattern commonly used in web development frameworks to handle HTTP requests and responses in a modular and reusable way. Middleware components are applied in a sequence, allowing you to perform actions before or after the main request handler is executed.

In PHP, the PHP-FIG (Framework Interop Group) introduced the PSR-15 Middleware standard that defines a common interface for creating middleware. Here's an example of how middleware works using the PSR-15 Middleware in a fictional framework:

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In this example, we have two middleware classes: AuthenticationMiddleware and LoggingMiddleware. Each middleware class implements the MiddlewareInterface from PSR-15. These middleware components can be added to the application stack and executed sequentially. The handle() method of each middleware can perform specific tasks before passing the request to the next middleware or the final request handler.

25.

Describe the Singleton design pattern. Provide a PHP code example.

The Singleton design pattern is a creational design pattern that ensures a class has only one instance and provides a global point of access to that instance. It is commonly used when you want to control the instantiation of a class to a single object, ensuring that there's only one instance of the class throughout the entire application.

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26.

Explain how to use the SPL (Standard PHP Library) in PHP.

The Standard PHP Library (SPL) is a collection of interfaces, classes, and functions that provide a set of standardized and reusable components for common programming tasks. The SPL enhances the capabilities of PHP and promotes good programming practices by offering a consistent and well-organized set of tools. It includes data structures, iterators, interfaces for iteration, sorting algorithms, and more.

Example using the SplStack class:

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These advanced-level PHP interview questions cover a range of topics, from design patterns to language features. Make sure to understand each concept thoroughly and practice writing code to solidify your knowledge.

27.

Does PHP support variable length argument functions?

Yes, PHP does support variable-length argument functions. Starting from PHP 5.6, variable-length argument functions can be defined using the ... (ellipsis) operator .

The ... operator, also known as the splat operator, allows a function to accept an indefinite number of arguments. These arguments are automatically collected into an array inside the function.

Here's an example of a variable-length argument function in PHP:

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In the example above, the sum() function accepts an indefinite number of arguments using the ... operator. The function body iterates through each number and returns their sum.

28.

How does Type Juggling work in PHP? Provide an example.

Type juggling in PHP refers to the automatic and implicit conversion of data types when performing operations or assignments. PHP is a loosely typed language, which means that variables do not have a fixed data type, and the interpreter dynamically determines the appropriate data type based on the context of the operation being performed.

Type juggling allows you to mix different data types without explicitly casting them, which can make coding more flexible but also requires careful attention to avoid unexpected behavior.

Here's an example to illustrate how type juggling works in PHP:

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29.

What is the use of the basename() function in PHP?

The basename() function in PHP is used to return the filename component of a given path. It is useful when dealing with file paths or URLs, and can be used to extract just the filename from a full path.

The function also has the ability to remove any suffix or extension from the filename before returning it. It is a helpful tool for managing and manipulating file paths and names within PHP applications.

30.

Describe the Observer design pattern. Provide a PHP code example.

The Observer design pattern is a behavioral pattern that defines a one-to-many dependency between objects, so that when one object (the subject) changes its state, all its dependents (observers) are notified and updated automatically. This pattern promotes loose coupling between the subject and its observers, allowing them to interact without being tightly bound to each other.

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31.

What is Dependency Injection? Provide a PHP example demonstrating its use.

Dependency Injection (DI) is a design pattern and a programming technique used in software development to achieve loose coupling between components or classes. In DI, the dependencies of a class are not created within the class itself but are provided from the outside, typically through the class constructor or setter methods. This approach promotes modularity, testability, and maintainability by reducing the direct dependencies between components.

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Wrapping up

This list of 100 PHP technical interview questions will help you prepare for upcoming interviews, especially for technical rounds. Brush up your knowledge by going through them. Do note, however, that they may not be the sole focus of a PHP interview.

Recruiters may also ask questions about a candidate’s skills, past responsibilities, and accomplishments to find out whether they are a fit for their job roles.

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