Top Big Data engineer interview questions and answers for 2024

If you are a Big Data engineer thinking of a job change, or if you are a recruiter hoping to find brilliant Big Data engineers, make a stop here. We have put together a list of frequently asked Big Data engineer interview questions and answers that can help you irrespective of whether you are a Big Data engineer or a recruiter.

Last updated on Feb 20, 2024

Big Data is the fuel powering the success of many businesses today. Therefore, big data engineers’ jobs are in high demand. There are hardly any companies today that are not using the power of Big Data and analytics to excel in marketing, HR, production, and even operations. With the competition being high, all recruiters want the best Big Data engineers.

Whether you are a Big Data engineer or a recruiter, you will find some use for these Big Data analytics interview questions with answers. We've curated a list of Big Data interview questions to help you prepare for Big Data developer jobs or help you find the right Big Data candidate. So, let’s get started!

Basic Big Data analytics interview questions and answers

1.

Differentiate between relational and non-relational database management systems.

relational vs non-relational dbms.webp

2.

What is data modeling?

Data modeling is the process of creating a conceptual representation of data structures and relationships between different data elements. It involves identifying the required data elements, determining their relationships, and mapping out how they will be stored and accessed in a database.

Here are some key points to note:

  • Data modeling helps ensure that data is accurately organized and stored, which leads to efficient retrieval and manipulation of data.
  • It provides a clear view of the data entities and how they relate, which is important for data analysis, decision-making, and integration with other systems.
  • Data models can be either high-level or detailed, depending on the project requirements.
  • Techniques used in data modeling include entity-relationship diagrams, data flow diagrams, and Unified Modeling Language diagrams.
  • Data modeling can help identify areas where data quality can be improved, and data inconsistencies can be detected.
  • Data modeling is a key part of the database design process and also feeds into application development, system integration, and architecture planning.

3.

How is a data warehouse different from an operational database?

data warehouse vs operational database.webp

4.

What are the big four V’s of Big Data?

  • Volume refers to the sheer amount of data being generated and collected. With the explosion of digital devices and online platforms, there is an unprecedented amount of data being generated every second.
  • Variety refers to the diverse types and formats of data. It includes structured data (like databases and spreadsheets) as well as unstructured data (like emails, social media posts, and videos).
  • Velocity refers to the speed at which data is being generated and needs to be processed. Real-time data streams and sensors contribute to the velocity of data.
  • Veracity refers to the quality and trustworthiness of the data. It is important to ensure the accuracy and reliability of data sources to make informed decisions.

5.

Differentiate between Star schema and Snowflake schema.

star vs snowflake schema.webp

6.

Mention the big data processing techniques.

This question makes a frequent appearance across Big Data engineer interview questions.

The following are the techniques of big data processing:

  • Processing of batches of big data
  • Stream processing of big data
  • Big data processing in real-time
  • Map-reduce

The above methods help in processing vast amounts of data. When batches of big data are processed offline, the process happens at full scale and even helps tackle random business intelligence issues. When big data is processed using real-time streams of data, the most recent data slices are used to profile data and pick outliers, expose impostor transactions, monitor for safety precautions, etc. This becomes even more challenging when large data sets need to be processed in real-time. It’s because very large data sets must be analyzed within seconds. High parallelism must be used to process data to achieve this.

7.

What are the differences between OLTP and OLAP?

OLTP VC OLAP.webp

8.

What are some differences between a data engineer and a data scientist?

Data engineers and data scientists work very closely together, but there are some differences in their roles and responsibilities.

data engineer vs data scientist.webp

9.

How is a data architect different from a data engineer?

data architect vs data engineers.webp

10.

Differentiate between structured and unstructured data.

structured vs unstructured data.webp

11.

How does Network File System (NFS) differ from Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)?

network vs hadoop file system.webp

12.

Talk about the different features of Hadoop.

The different features of Hadoop are as follows:

  • Open Source: As an open-source platform, Hadoop offers the ability to rewrite or change the code as per user needs and analytics requirements.
  • Scalability: Hadoop offers scalability by supporting adding hardware resources to the new nodes of network computers.
  • Data recovery: Because Hadoop keeps duplicate data across multiple computers on the network, it is possible to recover data in case of any faults or failures.
  • Data locality: In Hadoop, the data need not be moved for processing. Instead, the computation can take place where the data is, thereby speeding up the process.

13.

What is meant by feature selection?

Feature selection is the process of selecting a subset of relevant features that are useful in predicting the outcome of a given problem.

In other words, it is the process of identifying and selecting only the most important features from a dataset that have the maximum impact on the target variable. This is done to reduce the complexity of the data and make it easier to understand and interpret.

Feature selection is vital in machine learning models to avoid overfitting and to improve the accuracy and generalization of a predictive model. There are various feature selection techniques available, which involve statistical tests and algorithms to evaluate and rank features.

14.

What are the Port Numbers for NameNode, Task Tracker, and Job Tracker?

The Port Number for these are as follows:

  • The Port Number for NameNode is Port 50070
  • The Port Number for Task Tracker is Port 50060
  • The Port Number for Job Tracker is Port 50030

15.

How can missing values be handled in Big Data?

A missing value can be handled with the following processes:

  • Deletion: One option is to simply delete the rows or columns with missing values. However, this can result in significant data loss.
  • Imputation: This involves replacing missing values with estimated values. Popular imputation methods include mean, median, and mode imputation.
  • Predictive modeling: Machine learning algorithms can be used to predict missing values based on existing data. This approach can provide more accurate imputations.
  • Multiple imputation: This technique generates multiple imputed datasets and combines them for analysis. It takes into account the uncertainty associated with missing values.

16.

How do you deploy Big Data solutions?

The process for deploying Big Data solutions is as follows:

  • Ingestion of data: The first part of the process is to collect and stream data from various sources such as log files, SQL databases, and social media files. The three main challenges of data ingestion are large table ingestion, the capture of change data, and the changes of Schema in the source.
  • Storage of data: The second step is to store or load the data that has been extracted from various sources in HDFS or NoSQL by the HBase. Applications can easily access and process this stored data.
  • Processing of data: The next and very important step is to process the data. MapReduce and Spark framework help in analyzing large scale - petabytes and zettabytes of data.
  • Visualization and reporting: The last step of the process is perhaps the most important. Once the data has been analyzed, it is critical to present it in a digestible format for people to understand.

17.

What are the different Big Data processing techniques?

There are six main types of Big Data processing techniques.

  • A/B testing: In this method, a control group of data is compared with several test groups. This helps in identifying what changes or treatments can help improve the objective variable. For example, for an e-commerce site, what kinds of copy, images, and layout might give an impetus to the conversion rates. Big Data analytics can help in this case, however, the data sizes must be big enough to get meaningful differences to effect change.
  • Data integration and data fusion: This method involves combining techniques for analyzing and integrating data from multiple sources. This method is helpful as it gives more accurate results and insights when compared to getting insights based on a single data source.
  • Data mining: This is a common tool in Big Data analytics. In this method, statistical and machine learning models within database management systems are combined to extract and extrapolate patterns from large data sets.
  • Machine learning: Machine learning is an artificial intelligence technique that helps in data analysis. In machine learning, data sets are used for training computer algorithms for producing assumptions and predictions that are hitherto impossible for humans to attain.
  • Natural language processing or NLP: NLP is based on computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics and uses computer algorithms to understand human language to derive patterns.
  • Statistics: One of the oldest methods of processing data, statistical models help in collecting, organizing, and interpreting data from surveys and experiments.

18.

What is the purpose of the JPS command in Hadoop?

JPS stands for Java Virtual Machine Process Status. The JPS command helps in checking whether certain daemons are up or not. One can see all processes based on Java using this command. To check all the operating nodes of a host, the JPS command must be run from the root.

19.

What is meant by outliers?

Outliers are data points that significantly deviate from the typical pattern or distribution of a data set. These values can be very high or very low compared to other values in the data set.

Outliers can occur due to various reasons such as measurement errors, data entry mistakes, or genuinely unusual or extreme events. These exceptional values have the potential to affect the overall analysis and interpretation of the data.

It is important to identify and handle outliers appropriately, as they can distort statistical measures, impact the accuracy of predictive models, or impact the validity of conclusions drawn from the data.

20.

What is meant by logistic regression?

Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to predict the probability of a binary outcome. It is commonly used when the dependent variable is categorical, such as yes/no or true/false.

The goal of logistic regression is to find the best-fitting model that describes the relationship between the independent variables and the probability of the outcome.

Unlike linear regression, logistic regression uses a logistic function to transform the linear equation into a range of 0 to 1, representing the probability of the outcome. This makes it suitable for predicting categorical outcomes and determining the impact of independent variables on the probability of an event occurring.

21.

Briefly define the Star Schema.

The Star Schema is a popular data modeling technique used in data warehousing and business intelligence. It is characterized by a central fact table surrounded by dimension tables. The fact table represents the core measures or metrics of the business, while the dimension tables provide context and descriptive attributes.

The Star Schema is called so because the structure resembles a star with the fact table at the center and the dimension tables branching out like rays. This design allows for easy and fast querying and aggregation of data, making it ideal for complex analytical tasks in large datasets.

22.

Briefly define the Snowflake Schema.

The Snowflake Schema is a type of data model used in data warehousing that organizes data in a highly normalized manner. It is an extension of the Star Schema, where each dimension table is normalized into multiple dimension tables.

In a Snowflake Schema, the dimension tables are further normalized into sub-dimension tables. This normalization allows for more efficient data storage and provides a clearer representation of the data relationships.

While the Snowflake Schema offers advantages in terms of data integrity and storage optimization, it can also lead to increased complexity in queries due to the need for more joins between tables.

23.

What is the difference between the KNN and k-means methods?

KNN is a supervised learning algorithm used for classification or regression tasks. It finds K-nearest data points in the training set to classify or predict the output for a given query point. KNN considers the similarity between data points to make predictions.

On the other hand, k-means is an unsupervised clustering algorithm. It groups data points into K clusters based on their similarity. The similarity is measured by minimizing the sum of squared distances between data points and their cluster centroids.

24.

What is the purpose of A/B testing?

A/B testing, also known as split testing, is a method of comparing two versions of a website, mobile application, or marketing campaign to determine which one performs better.

The main purpose of A/B testing is to scientifically evaluate the impact of changes to a product or marketing strategy. By randomly dividing a user base into two or more groups, A/B testing allows businesses to test and optimize various elements of their website or campaign, such as headlines, images, and calls-to-action, to see which version leads to more conversions or sales.

This helps businesses make data-driven decisions and improve their overall performance and ROI.

25.

What do you mean by collaborative filtering?

Collaborative filtering is a method used in recommender systems, which analyze large sets of data to make personalized recommendations. It works by finding similarities between users based on their past interactions and preferences.

Instead of relying solely on item characteristics, collaborative filtering considers the opinions and actions of a community of users to make accurate predictions about an individual user's preferences.

By leveraging the collective wisdom of the community, collaborative filtering can provide valuable recommendations for products, movies, music, and more. This approach is widely used in e-commerce platforms and content streaming services to enhance the user experience and drive customer satisfaction.

26.

What are some biases that can happen while sampling?

There are several biases that can occur when taking a sample from a population, including selection bias, measurement bias, and response bias. Selection bias is when individuals are chosen for the sample in such a way that it is not truly representative of the population.

Measurement bias occurs when the measurement tool used is inaccurate or doesn't fully capture the variable being studied. Response bias is when participants in the study do not respond truthfully.

For example, when participants give socially desirable answers, rather than their true responses. Addressing and controlling for these biases is essential to obtaining reliable and valid results from samples.

27.

What is a distributed cache?

A distributed cache is a type of caching system that allows for the storage of frequently accessed data across a large network of interconnected machines. This is done in order to minimize the amount of data that needs to be retrieved from a centralized database or storage system, which can reduce network lag and improve overall system performance.

Distributed caches are often used in large-scale web applications and distributed systems in order to provide quick access to frequently used data. By distributing data in this way, applications can scale more effectively by balancing the load across multiple machines. Some popular examples of distributed cache systems include Redis, Hazelcast, and Memcached.

28.

Explain how Big Data and Hadoop are related to each other.

Big Data and Hadoop are closely related, as Hadoop is a popular technology for processing and analyzing large datasets known as Big Data.

Big Data refers to the enormous amount of structured and unstructured data that organizations collect and analyze to gain insights and make informed decisions. Big Data is characterized by its volume, velocity, and variety.

Hadoop is an open-source framework used to store and process Big Data. It enables distributed processing of large datasets across clusters of computers. Hadoop uses a distributed file system called Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) to store data and the MapReduce programming model to process and analyze the data in parallel.

29.

Briefly define COSHH.

COSHH, which stands for Control of Substances Hazardous to Health, is a set of regulations that outlines the measures to be taken in order to protect workers from the harmful effects of hazardous substances. These substances can include chemicals, fumes, dust, and other substances that have the potential to cause harm to health.

COSHH regulations require employers to assess the risks posed by hazardous substances, implement control measures to minimize exposure, provide adequate training and information to employees, and monitor and review the effectiveness of these measures.

Overall, the goal of COSHH is to ensure the well-being and safety of workers in environments where hazardous substances are present.

30.

Give a brief overview of the major Hadoop components.

  • Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): A distributed storage system that allows data to be stored across multiple machines in a cluster
  • MapReduce: A programming model that allows for parallel processing of large datasets by breaking them into smaller, manageable tasks and distributing them across the cluster.
  • YARN: Yet Another Resource Negotiator, which manages resources in the cluster and schedules tasks for efficient execution.
  • Hadoop Common: The utilities and libraries shared by other Hadoop components.
  • Hadoop Ecosystem: A set of additional tools and frameworks that work with Hadoop, such as Hive, Pig, and Spark.

31.

What is the default block size in HDFS, and why is it set to that value? Can it be changed, and if so, how?

The default block size in HDFS is 64 MB. It is set to this value for several reasons:

  • Efficiency: Larger block sizes reduce the amount of metadata overhead compared to smaller block sizes. By having larger blocks, HDFS reduces the number of blocks and decreases the storage overhead associated with block metadata storage.
  • Reduced network overhead: HDFS is designed to handle large files, including those in the terabyte or petabyte range. With larger block sizes, the number of blocks needed to store a file is reduced, resulting in reduced network overhead when reading or writing large files.
  • Continuous data streaming: HDFS is optimized for the processing of large data sets. With larger block sizes, streaming operations can be performed more efficiently as the data can be read or written in larger, contiguous chunks.

Yes, the block size in HDFS can be changed. The block size can be set while creating a file or changing an existing file's block size. It can be specified using the -D option with the dfs.blocksize parameter in the hadoop fs command. For example, to set the block size to 128 MB, you can use the command hadoop fs -D dfs.blocksize=134217728 -put <local_file> <hdfs_path>.

32.

What methods does Reducer use in Hadoop?

The Reducer is a crucial component in the Hadoop framework for Big Data processing and analysis. Once data has been mapped out by the MapReduce system, the Reducer processes and aggregates data to produce the final result.

The primary method used by the Reducer is the Shuffle and Sort process, which involves grouping and sorting intermediate key-value pairs based on the key. This process ensures that all values with the same key end up in the same Reducer for aggregation.

The Reducer then applies a user-defined reduce function to data and reduces each group of intermediate values to a smaller set of summary records. By applying different reduce functions, the Reducer can generate a variety of results beyond mere counts or sums of grouped data.

33.

What are the various design schemas in data modeling?

  • Relational Schema: This schema organizes data into tables with defined relationships between them, using primary and foreign keys.
  • Dimensional Schema: This schema is used in data warehousing and organizes data into fact tables (measures) and dimension tables (attributes).
  • Star Schema: A type of dimensional schema, the star schema consists of one central fact table connected to multiple dimension tables.
  • Snowflake Schema: This schema extends the star schema by normalizing dimension tables, resulting in a more normalized structure.
  • Graph Schema: This schema represents data as nodes and relationships between them, ideal for representing complex interconnectivity.

34.

What are the components that the Hive data model has to offer?

  • Tables: Hive allows you to define structured tables that store data in a tabular format.
  • Databases: You can organize tables into separate databases to manage and categorize your data effectively.
  • Partitions: Hive enables you to divide large tables into smaller partitions based on certain criteria, improving query performance.
  • Buckets: You can further optimize data storage and querying by dividing partitions into smaller units called buckets.
  • Views: Hive allows you to create virtual tables known as views, which provide subsets of data for easier analysis.
  • Metadata: Hive stores metadata about tables, databases, and other objects to facilitate data management and discovery.

35.

Differentiate between *args and **kwargs.

*args is a special syntax in Python used to pass a variable number of non-keyworded arguments to a function. The *args parameter allows you to pass any number of arguments to a function. Inside the function, these arguments are treated as a tuple.

Similar to *args, **kwargs is a special syntax used to pass a variable number of keyword arguments to a function. The **kwargs parameter allows you to pass any number of keyword arguments to a function. Inside the function, these arguments are treated as a dictionary, where the keys are the keyword names and the values are the corresponding values passed.

36.

What is the difference between “is” and “==”?

In Python, "is" tests for object identity while "==" tests for object equality.

"is" checks if two objects refer to the same memory location, which means they must be the same object. On the other hand, "==" checks if two objects are equal, but they don't necessarily have to be the same object.

is operator.webp

37.

How is memory managed in Python?

In Python, memory management is handled automatically by the Python interpreter. It uses a technique called "reference counting" to keep track of objects and determine when they are no longer needed. When an object's reference count drops to zero, the memory allocated is freed.

In addition to reference counting, Python also uses a garbage collector to handle circular references through reference counting. The garbage collector periodically checks for and collects unused objects to reclaim memory.

This automated memory management system eliminates the need for manual memory management, making Python a convenient language to work with.

38.

What is a decorator?

A decorator is a design pattern in Python that allows you to add new functionality to an existing class or function. It provides a way to modify the behavior of the object without changing its implementation.

In Python, decorators are implemented using the "@" symbol followed by the name of the decorator function. Decorators can be applied to functions, methods, or classes to enhance their features or modify their behavior.

They are commonly used for tasks such as logging, timing, caching, and validation. Decorators help in keeping the code modular and reusable by separating the concern of additional functionality from the main logic.

39.

Are lookups faster with dictionaries or lists in Python?

When it comes to lookups, dictionaries are typically faster than lists in Python. The reason behind this is dictionaries use a hash table implementation, which allows for constant time lookups (O(1)).

On the other hand, lists use indexing to access elements, which requires iterating through the list until the desired element is found. This results in linear time complexity (O(n)).

So, if you need to perform frequent lookups, it is more efficient to use dictionaries. However, if the order of elements is important or you need to perform operations like sorting, lists are a better choice.

40.

How can you return the binary of an integer?

One way to return the binary of an integer is to use the built-in bin() function in Python. This function takes an integer as an argument and returns a string representation of that integer in binary format.

For example, bin(5) would return '0b101', which represents the binary value of 5. If you want to remove the '0b' prefix from the returned string, you can simply slice the string like this: bin(5)[2:]. This would return '101', which is the binary representation of 5.

Overall, using the bin() function is a simple and efficient way to convert integers to binary format in Python.

41.

How can you remove duplicates from a list in Python?

  • Convert the list to a set: set_list = set(my_list)
  • Convert the set back to a list: new_list = list(set_list)

This method works because sets cannot contain duplicate elements. By converting the list to a set, all duplicates are automatically removed. Now, new_list will contain the list without any duplicates.

42.

What is the difference between append and extend in Python?

append vs extend.webp

43.

When do you use pass, continue, and break?

  • Pass is a placeholder statement used when you don't want to take any action within a block of code. It is often used as a placeholder for future implementation.
  • Continue is used in loops to skip the remaining statements in the current iteration and move on to the next iteration. It is typically used to skip certain conditions or to filter elements from a list.
  • Break is also used in loops, but it completely exits the loop, regardless of any remaining iterations. It is commonly used to terminate a loop based on a specific condition.

Understanding when to use pass, continue, and break will help you control the flow of your Python programs effectively.

44.

How can you check if a given string contains only letters and numbers?

To check if a given string contains only letters and numbers, you can use regular expressions. Regular expressions allow you to perform pattern matching within strings.

In this case, you can use the match function and the regular expression /^[a-zA-Z0-9]+$/ to check if the string contains only letters (both uppercase and lowercase) and numbers. If the match function returns a match, then the string contains only letters and numbers. If it returns null, then the string contains other characters.

45.

Mention some advantages of using NumPy arrays over Python lists.

NumPy is a Python package that is widely used for scientific computing. One of its distinct features is the use of arrays for data storage and manipulation instead of Python's built-in lists. NumPy arrays have several advantages over Python lists.

Firstly, they are optimized for efficiency and can handle large datasets much faster than lists. They also have a fixed size and hence, take up less memory compared to lists. NumPy arrays also allow for broadcasting, which allows for element-wise operations that can save time and lead to more concise code.

Furthermore, NumPy arrays also have a wide range of mathematical functions and operations that can be performed on them.

46.

In Pandas, how can you create a dataframe from a list?

In Pandas, one can create a dataframe from a list by using the pd.DataFrame function. This function allows you to specify a list as the data source for the dataframe, as well as define the column names and index labels for the dataframe.

To do this, create a nested list containing the data values of the dataframe, and pass them into the pd.DataFrame function. Additionally, you can use the columns parameter to specify the column names and the index parameter to specify the index labels.

Overall, using the pd.DataFrame function on a list is a quick and easy way to generate a basic dataframe in Pandas.

47.

In Pandas, how can you find the median value in a column “Age” from a dataframe “employees”?

To find the median value of a column "Age" in a pandas dataframe named "employees", you can use the "median()" method. Here is an example code snippet to achieve this:

median value.webp

This code selects the "Age" column from the dataframe using the indexing operator and then applies the "median()" method to calculate the median value. The result is stored in a variable called "median_age" and then printed using the "print()" function.

48.

In Pandas, how can you rename a column?

To rename a column in Pandas, you can use the rename method. This method allows you to rename a single column or multiple columns in the data frame.

To rename a single column, you first need to select the column using its original name. You can then call the rename method and pass in a dictionary with the new column name as the key and the original column name as the value.

49.

How can you identify missing values in a data frame?

  • Using .isnull() function: This function returns a boolean mask indicating which cells have missing values.
  • Using .info() method: This provides a summary of the data frame including the count of non-null values for each column.
  • Using .describe() method: This displays descriptive statistics of the data frame including the count of non-null values.
  • Using .fillna() method: This can be used to replace missing values with a specified value.

50.

What is SciPy?

SciPy is a popular scientific computing library for Python that provides a wide range of functionalities. It is built on top of NumPy, another popular library for numerical computations in Python.

SciPy offers modules for optimization, integration, linear algebra, statistics, signal and image processing, and more. It is an essential tool for scientific research, engineering, and data analysis. With its extensive library of functions and algorithms, SciPy makes it easier to perform complex mathematical operations and solve scientific problems efficiently.

Whether you're working on data analysis, machine learning, or simulation, SciPy is a powerful tool that can greatly enhance your Python programming experience.

51.

Given a 5x5 matrix in NumPy, how will you inverse the matrix?

  • Import the NumPy library: import numpy as np.
  • Create a 5x5 matrix, matrix, using NumPy: matrix = np.array([[...],[...],[...],[...],[...]]).
  • Calculate the inverse of the matrix: inverse_matrix = np.linalg.inv(matrix).
  • The inverse_matrix variable will now hold the inverse of the original matrix. Remember, for the linalg.inv() function to work, the matrix needs to be square and have a non-zero determinant.

52.

What is an ndarray in NumPy?

An ndarray (short for "n-dimensional array") is a fundamental data structure in NumPy, which is a powerful numerical computing library for Python. It consists of elements of a single data type arranged in a grid with any number of dimensions.

Numpy ndarray is a homogeneous collection of multidimensional items of the same type, where each item is indexed by a tuple of positive integers. The ndarray provides a fast and memory-efficient way to handle large volumes of numerical data, such as matrices and arrays, and supports a range of mathematical operations and manipulations.

The ndarray has become a cornerstone of scientific computing and is a key tool for data scientists, researchers, and developers.

53.

Using NumPy, create a 2-D array of random integers between 0 and 500 with 4 rows and 7 columns.

Sure, here's a quick code snippet that uses NumPy library in Python to generate a 2-D array of random integers between 0 and 500 with 4 rows and 7 columns:

numpy 2d array.webp

This code imports NumPy module as np, then uses the np.random function to generate a 2-D array of random integers between 0 to 500. The size parameter specifies the shape of the array, which is set to (4, 7) for 4 rows and 7 columns. The output is displayed using the print function.

54.

Find all the indices in an array of NumPy where the value is greater than 5.

To find all the indices in an array of NumPy where the value is greater than 5, you can use the np.where() function. This function returns a tuple of arrays, one for each dimension of the input array, containing the indices where the condition is true. Here's an example:

indicaes in numpy array.webp

This will output (array([2, 4, 6, 7, 8]),), which means that the values greater than 5 are located at indices 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 in the original array.

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Intermediate Big Data interview questions and answers

1.

What are Freeze Panes in MS Excel?

Freeze Panes in MS Excel is a useful feature that allows you to lock certain rows or columns in place while scrolling through a large spreadsheet. By freezing panes, you can ensure that important information, like column headers or row labels, remains visible at all times.

This is especially helpful when working with extensive data sets. To use Freeze Panes, simply select the row or column below and to the right of the area you want to freeze, go to the "View" tab, and click on "Freeze Panes". This will make navigating and analyzing data in Excel much more efficient.

To freeze panes on Excel:

  • Open your Excel spreadsheet.
  • Select the row below and to the right of where you want the freeze to start.
  • Go to the View tab in the toolbar.
  • Click on the Freeze Panes button.
  • From the drop-down menu, select either "Freeze Panes" to freeze all rows and columns above and to the left of the selected cell, or "Freeze Top Row" or "Freeze First Column" to freeze just the top row or first column.
  • The selected panes will now be frozen, allowing you to scroll through your spreadsheet while keeping important data visible.

2.

What is meant by a ribbon?

A ribbon is a graphical user interface element that houses a series of commands and tools in a horizontal bar at the top of a software program. It was first introduced by Microsoft in its Office 2007 suite of productivity applications and has since become a common feature in many applications.

The ribbon interface is designed to improve usability by organizing tools and commands into related groups making them easier to find thereby increasing efficiency. Users can click on individual tabs to reveal various tools grouped by function. Ribbons display a collection of icons and text that can be clicked to perform a specific action.

3.

How can you prevent someone from copying the data in your spreadsheet?

To prevent someone from copying the data in your spreadsheet, you can set password protection on the file so that unauthorized users cannot access it.

Additionally, you can also protect individual cells or entire sheets within the spreadsheet with password protection, which will prevent users from copying the data or altering any formulas. Another way to prevent copying is to restrict the editing permissions on the file, which limits the ways in which users can modify the data.

These security measures can help to safeguard your sensitive data and prevent it from being copied or shared without your permission.

4.

How can you find the sum of columns in Excel?

  • In an empty cell, type "=SUM(" to begin the function.
  • Click and drag your mouse to select the range of cells you want to add up in the column.
  • Press the Enter key to complete the function. The sum of the selected cells will be displayed in the cell.
  • To find the sum of multiple columns, repeat the process for each column.

Alternatively, you can use the AutoSum feature. Simply select the range of cells in the column and click on the AutoSum button in the toolbar. The sum will be calculated automatically.

5.

Explain macros in Excel.

Macros in Excel are an incredibly powerful tool that automates repetitive tasks. They are essentially sets of instructions that can be recorded and replayed to save time and effort.

With macros, you can automate tasks like formatting multiple cells, creating charts, or performing calculations. Once a macro is created, it can be assigned to a button, a keyboard shortcut, or even run automatically.

This can be a huge time-saver when working with large datasets or performing complex calculations. Macros in Excel allow users to streamline their workflows and increase productivity by automating repetitive tasks.

6.

What is the order of operations followed for evaluating expressions in Excel?

Excel calculates formulas from left to right according to a specific order for each operator. The order of operators follows the acronym PEMDAS (parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction) with some customization to handle the formula syntax in a spreadsheet.

Therefore, Excel evaluates expressions within parentheses first, followed by exponentiation, then multiplication and division (left to right) and finally addition and subtraction (left to right).

By understanding the order of operations in Excel, users can create complex formulas with confidence and ensure the correct results are returned.

7.

Explain pivot tables in Excel.

A Pivot Table is a powerful tool in Excel that allows users to summarize and analyze large datasets easily. It is a data summarization tool that can be used to transform raw data into meaningful insights.

Users can create Pivot Tables by selecting relevant data columns, rows, and values, then summarizing and aggregating them into a new table. Pivot Tables are incredibly flexible and allow users to dynamically rearrange and manipulate data to create a variety of different views and reports.

They are widely used for business intelligence and data analysis tasks and are a valuable addition to Excel's suite of data tools.

8.

Mention some differences between SUBSTITUTE and REPLACE functions in Excel.

  • Range of replacement: SUBSTITUTE replaces all occurrences of a specified text within a given cell, while REPLACE only replaces a specified number of characters with new text.
  • Text type: SUBSTITUTE can replace both text and numbers, whereas REPLACE can only replace text.
  • Specifying the occurrence: SUBSTITUTE replaces all occurrences by default, but you can specify the occurrence number as the fourth argument. REPLACE only replaces the specified occurrence.
  • Resulting cell: SUBSTITUTE returns the modified text as the result, while REPLACE modifies the original text directly in the specified cell.

9.

What is the use of the IF function in Excel?

The IF function in Excel is used to perform a logical test and return different values based on the result of that test. It allows you to make decisions and perform calculations based on specific conditions. You can use the IF function to check if a certain condition is true or false, and then execute different actions accordingly.

For example, you can use IF to check if a student's exam score is greater than a passing grade, and return "Pass" or "Fail" based on the result. The IF function is a powerful tool for creating dynamic and customizable formulas in Excel.

10.

What does the red triangle at the top right-hand corner of a cell in Excel mean

If you see a red triangle at the top right-hand corner of a cell, it means that there is an error with the contents of the cell. This error indicator triangle is known as a "smart tag". It suggests possible solutions to fix the error, such as ignoring the error, correcting the error, or adding more information.

You can click on the triangle to see a drop-down menu of options. It's important to address any errors in your spreadsheet to ensure that your data analysis is accurate, and the red triangle is a helpful indicator of cells that need attention.

11.

What is meant by Aggregate Functions in SQL?

Aggregate functions are often combined with GROUP BY clauses to group the data and perform calculations on each group separately.

Some of the common aggregate functions in SQL are:

  • COUNT(): returns the number of rows that match a certain condition.
  • SUM(): calculates the sum of a specific column.
  • AVG(): calculates the average value of a column.
  • MIN(): returns the smallest value in a column.
  • MAX(): returns the largest value in a column.

12.

How would you find duplicates using an SQL query?

To find duplicates using an SQL query, you can use the GROUP BY clause along with the HAVING clause. Here's an example query:

duplicates using SQL query.webp

Replace column_name with the name of the column you want to check for duplicates, and table_name with the name of the table. This query will group the records by the specified column and then retrieve only those groups where the count is greater than 1, indicating duplicates.

13.

How to display all the records in a column which have the same value.

To display all the records in a column which have the same value, you can use a SQL query with the WHERE clause. The WHERE clause allows you to filter the records based on a specific condition. For example, if you have a column named "city" and you want to display all the records with the value "New York", you can write the query as follows:

SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE city = 'New York';

This query will retrieve all the records from the table where the value in the column "city" is equal to "New York". Replace "table_name" with the actual name of your table.

14.

Explain how to find duplicates in multiple columns of a table

To find duplicates in multiple columns of a table, you can use the GROUP BY clause in SQL. This allows you to group the rows based on the values in the specified columns. By combining it with the HAVING clause and the COUNT function, you can identify the duplicate values. For example,

find duplicates.webp

This query will retrieve the columns, column1, and column2 along with the count of occurrences. It will only show the rows where the count is greater than 1, indicating duplicates.

15.

What is a primary key in SQL?

A primary key in SQL is a unique identifier for each record in a table. It ensures that each row has a distinct value for the primary key column. The purpose of a primary key is to uniquely identify a record and enforce data integrity.

It is often used to establish relationships between different tables through foreign keys. Primary keys can be made up of one or more columns, and they must be non-null and unique.

They are crucial for indexing and improving the efficiency of database queries. In summary, a primary key is a fundamental concept in SQL that guarantees the uniqueness and integrity of data.

16.

What is meant by the UNIQUE constraint in SQL?

In SQL, the UNIQUE constraint is used to ensure that each value in a column is unique and not repeated. This means that values in the specified column must not be duplicated within a table or across multiple tables.

UNIQUE can be applied to a single column or a combination of columns, creating a multi-column constraint. When data is entered into the table, the UNIQUE constraint checks whether the value already exists in the column. If so, it will not permit duplicates.

The UNIQUE constraint is useful in ensuring data accuracy and data integrity within a database, preventing duplication, or redundancy of data.

17.

What are the different kinds of joins in SQL?

  • Inner Join: Returns only the rows that have matching values in both tables.
  • Left Join: Retrieves all the rows from the left table and the matching rows from the right table.
  • Right Join: Retrieves all the rows from the right table and the matching rows from the left table.
  • Full Outer Join: Returns all rows from both tables and includes non-matching rows as well.

These join types are essential for querying and analyzing data from multiple tables in a relational database. Depending on the data requirements, different join types can be used to achieve the desired results.

18.

What do you mean by index and indexing in SQL?

In SQL, an index is a database structure that provides quicker access to data in a table. Indexing is the process of creating these structures to improve query performance. By using index, the SQL database system can quickly locate the data by traversing through the index tree, rather than scanning the entire table for every query execution.

Creating indexes on table columns that are frequently used in WHERE clauses or joins can significantly speed up queries with predicate clauses. However, it is important to use indexing judiciously, as it may come at a cost of decreased write performance and increased storage usage.

19.

How is a clustered index different from a non-clustered index in SQL?

A clustered index in SQL physically orders the table's data based on the indexed column. This means the data is physically stored on the disk in the same order as the clustered index key, and only one clustered index can exist per table. This helps to speed up queries that use that column as it's already sorted.

On the other hand, a non-clustered index creates a separate structure that contains the indexed column's value and a pointer to the actual data located in the table. The data is not physically ordered on the disk with a non-clustered index, and multiple non-clustered indexes can exist per table. This too speeds up queries based on the index, albeit slightly slower than with a clustered index.

20.

What is a foreign key in SQL?

A foreign key in SQL is a column or a combination of columns that helps establish a relationship between two tables in a database. It is a way to enforce referential integrity, where it ensures that data stored across different tables is consistent and accurate.

In simple terms, a foreign key is a field that points to or references the primary key in another table. This link helps to connect information between related tables and helps to preserve the integrity of the data relationships.

Without foreign keys, it would not be possible to implement a relational database effectively and accurately.

21.

What is a cursor?

A cursor is a database object that is used to retrieve data from a result set one row at a time. It is like a pointer that is used to point to a specific row within a set of results. Cursors are commonly used in database programming languages like SQL to perform operations on individual rows that meet certain criteria.

The cursor enables the user to manipulate the data stored in the database, such as selecting, inserting, updating, and deleting records. It provides a mechanism for navigating through the records in the database result set, making it easier for the user to perform the desired actions on the data.

22.

What is an alias in SQL?

An alias in SQL is a temporary name assigned to a table, column, or expression. It allows you to create a shorter or more descriptive name for your data, improving readability and simplifying complex queries. You can use aliases in the SELECT statement to rename columns, in the FROM clause to rename tables, and in the WHERE clause to refer to aliases in the same query.

For example, you can alias a table as "T" and refer to it as "T.column_name" in your query. Aliases are especially useful when working with multiple tables or when using aggregate functions.

23.

What is meant by normalization in SQL?

Normalization in SQL refers to the process of organizing relational database tables to eliminate redundancy and ensure data integrity. It involves breaking down larger tables into smaller, more manageable ones, and establishing relationships between them using primary and foreign keys.

Normalization helps in avoiding data anomalies and improving database efficiency. It reduces data duplication, provides better data integrity, and simplifies the maintenance of the database. There are different levels or forms of normalization, commonly referred to as first normal form (1NF), second normal form (2NF), third normal form (3NF), and so on.

Each level has specific rules and criteria to achieve database normalization. Ultimately, normalization helps in creating a well-structured and efficient database design.

24.

What is a stored procedure?

A stored procedure is a set of pre-defined instructions or a script that resides in a database. It is designed to perform a specific task or a series of tasks whenever it is called upon.

Stored procedures are commonly used to encapsulate complex database operations, such as data manipulation, validation, or business logic, into a single executable unit. They provide a way to improve performance by reducing network traffic and increasing security by granting specific access to the database.

Stored procedures are particularly useful in situations where the same tasks need to be executed repeatedly or when multiple applications need to access the same database.

25.

Which SQL query can be used to delete a table from the database but keep its structure intact?

To delete a table from the database while keeping its structure intact, you can use the DROP TABLE statement in SQL. The syntax for this query is:

DROP TABLE table_name;

Replace table_name with the name of the table you want to delete. This query will permanently remove the table and its contents from the database, but it will maintain the table's structure. It is important to be cautious when running this query, as it cannot be undone, and any data within the table will be lost. Make sure to have a backup of the data if needed.

26.

What is the default ordering of the ORDER BY clause and how can this be changed?

The default ordering of the ORDER BY clause in SQL is ascending (ASC). This means that the query results will be ordered in ascending order, from the smallest value to the largest. However, if you want to change the ordering to descending (DESC), you can specify it in the ORDER BY clause.

For example, if you want to order the results in descending order based on a column named "price", you can write ORDER BY price DESC. This will display the highest prices at the top of the result set. Additionally, you can also specify multiple columns for ordering, separated by commas.

27.

Explain the use of the -compress-codec parameter.

The -compress-codec parameter in Big Data is used to specify the compression codec to be used for data storage or transmission. Big Data processing systems like Hadoop, Spark, and Storm often deal with large volumes of data that need to be compressed to save storage space or to improve data transfer efficiency.

By using the -compress-codec parameter, users can choose from a variety of compression codecs available in Big Data platforms. These codecs enable the efficient compression and decompression of data, reducing its size while preserving its integrity and allowing for faster processing.

Proper usage of the -compress-codec parameter can significantly impact performance and stability in Big Data processing systems. Selecting the appropriate compression codec depends on factors such as the type of data being processed, the available resources, and the desired trade-off between storage space and processing speed.

Here is an example of using the -compress-codec parameter in Hadoop to specify the Snappy compression codec:

hadoop jar.webp

In this example, the Snappy compression codec is selected for compressing and decompressing the data.

28.

What is meant by SQL injection?

SQL injection is a type of web application security vulnerability that occurs when an attacker inserts malicious SQL statements into an entry field for execution by the database.

The attacker uses these statements to directly manipulate data in the database, bypassing any security measures that may be in place. This can lead to unauthorized access to sensitive data, such as usernames, passwords, and credit card information, as well as complete control over the affected system.

SQL injection attacks can be prevented by using parameterized queries and data validation, which prevents attackers from inserting their own SQL statements into user input fields.

29.

What statement does the system execute whenever a database is modified?

Whenever a database is modified, the system executes a SQL statement called "DML" or Data Manipulation Language. This statement is responsible for modifying the data within the database.

It includes commands such as "INSERT" to add new records, "UPDATE" to modify existing data, and "DELETE" to remove unwanted records. The DML statement allows users to make changes to the database while maintaining the integrity and consistency of the data.

30.

Mention some differences between the DELETE and TRUNCATE statements in SQL.

delete vs truncate.webp

31.

What is a trigger in SQL?

A trigger in SQL is a database object that is automatically executed in response to a specific event or action on a table, such as an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operation. It is designed to enforce data integrity, maintain consistency, and automate certain tasks.

Triggers are written using SQL code and can be defined to execute before or after the triggering event. They can perform various actions, such as modifying data, generating alerts, enforcing business rules, or updating related tables.

Triggers provide a way to enhance the functionality and control of a database by automating actions based on specific conditions.

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Advanced Big Data engineer interview questions and answers

1.

Explain the features of Azure Storage Explorer.

  • Browsing and managing storage accounts: Users can easily view and manage blobs, files, tables, queues, and virtual directories within their storage accounts.
  • Uploading and downloading data: It allows users to easily upload and download files and folders to and from storage accounts.
  • Copying, moving, and renaming files: Users can easily copy, move, and rename files and folders across different storage containers or within the same container.
  • Managing shared access signatures (SAS): It provides functionality to create, manage, and revoke shared access signatures for granting temporary access to specific storage resources.
  • Generating SAS URLs: Users can easily generate SAS URLs for granting temporary access to their Azure Storage resources.

Overall, Azure Storage Explorer is a versatile and user-friendly tool that simplifies the management and interaction with Azure Storage services.

2.

What are the various types of storage available in Azure?

  • Azure Blob Storage: A scalable object storage solution for storing unstructured data such as documents, images, videos, and backups.
  • Azure File Storage: A fully managed file share service that can be accessed over the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol.
  • Azure Queue Storage: A messaging service for reliable and asynchronous communication between different components of an application.
  • Azure Table Storage: A NoSQL key-value store for storing structured data.
  • Azure Disk Storage: Managed disk service that provides highly available and durable storage for virtual machines.
  • Azure Archive Storage: A low-cost, long-term storage solution for rarely accessed data.

3.

What data security solutions does Azure SQL DB provide?

Azure SQL DB provides a range of data security solutions to protect sensitive information. One capability is the support for the tabular data stream (TDS) protocol, which ensures that the database is only accessible over the default port of TCP/1433.

Additionally, Azure SQL DB offers various security features such as firewall rules, Azure AD admin management, and database access management. Best practices for data security and encryption are also provided, covering data in transit and at rest.

Furthermore, advanced data security capabilities are available for SQL Server on Azure Virtual Machines. These features help ensure the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of data stored in Azure SQL DB.

4.

What do you understand by PolyBase?

PolyBase is a technology that allows you to query data across both relational and non-relational data sources such as Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), Azure Blob Storage, and others. It is a distributed query engine that enables you to use T-SQL commands to access and process data across different systems.

PolyBase can be used with various data processing technologies such as SQL Server, Azure SQL Data Warehouse, and Azure SQL Database among others. By utilizing PolyBase, business intelligence professionals can quickly and easily access data stored across diverse platforms and technologies without worrying about complex integration or data movement challenges.

5.

What is the best way to capture streaming data in Azure?

The best way to capture streaming data in Azure is to use Azure Stream Analytics. It is a fully managed real-time analytics service that allows you to process and analyze high volumes of streaming data from various sources, such as IoT devices, social media, and logs.

With Azure Stream Analytics, you can define simple SQL-like queries to filter, aggregate, and transform the data in real-time. The processed data can then be stored in Azure Storage, Azure SQL Database, or sent to other downstream services for further analysis or visualization. This provides a scalable and efficient solution for capturing and processing streaming data in Azure.

6.

Discuss the different windowing options available in Azure Stream Analytics.

Azure Stream Analytics provides various windowing options that enable time-based aggregations and computations on streaming data. These options include:

  • Tumbling Windows: Fixed-size, non-overlapping time windows where each event belongs to exactly one window.
  • Hopping Windows: Fixed-size, overlapping time windows where an event can belong to multiple windows.
  • Sliding Windows: Fixed-size, overlapping time windows where each event can belong to multiple windows, but the window duration is defined by the arrival time of the events.
  • Session Windows: Variable-size time windows that group events based on a gap in the arrival time. The gap duration can be dynamically determined based on the event data.

7.

Discuss the different consistency models in Cosmos DB.

consistency models.webp

8.

What are the various types of Queues that Azure offers?

  • Azure Service Bus Queues: These high-performance, cloud-based queues support reliable message delivery and can be used for decoupling applications and enabling asynchronous communication.
  • Azure Storage Queues: These simple, low-cost queues are designed for storing and retrieving large numbers of messages. They are suitable for scenarios where simple message queuing is required, such as work dispatching and job processing.
  • Azure Event Grid: Although not a traditional queue, Azure Event Grid allows you to publish events and subscribe to them, providing a scalable messaging system for event-driven architectures.

9.

What are the different data redundancy options in Azure Storage?

data redundancy options.webp

10.

What logging capabilities does AWS Security offer?

AWS Security offers a robust set of logging capabilities to help you monitor and track activities within your infrastructure. Key features include:

  • CloudTrail: This service logs API calls made by users providing detailed information on who is making the changes.
  • VPC Flow Logs: These logs capture network traffic information, allowing you to analyze traffic patterns and identify potential security issues.
  • AWS Config: This service records the configuration changes made to your AWS resources, giving you visibility into resource history.
  • Amazon GuardDuty: This threat detection service analyzes logs from multiple sources to identify malicious activity within your environment.
  • AWS CloudWatch: This platform provides central logging and monitoring, allowing you to collect, view, and analyze logs from various AWS services.

11.

How can Amazon Route 53 ensure high availability while maintaining low latency?

Amazon Route 53, the DNS service provided by Amazon Web Services, can ensure high availability and low latency through its use of multiple globally distributed servers. By having servers distributed in various locations, Route 53 can quickly direct traffic to the nearest server, reducing latency and improving website load times for users.

Additionally, Route 53 automatically routes traffic away from any servers experiencing downtime, ensuring high availability. Furthermore, Route 53 offers features such as health checks and traffic routing policies that allow users to customize their DNS settings for optimal performance.

Altogether, these features enable Route 53 to provide reliable, fast, and highly available DNS services to its users.

12.

What is Amazon Elastic Transcoder, and how does it work?

Amazon Elastic Transcoder is a service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) for media transcoding in the cloud. It allows users to convert media files stored in Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) into formats required by consumer playback devices. In the context of Big Data, Elastic Transcoder can be used to process and transcode large volumes of media files, enabling efficient storage and retrieval of data for analysis and further processing.

  • Input: You provide the media file you want to transcode to the Elastic Transcoder.
  • Preset Selection: You choose the desired output format, resolution, and other settings using presets or custom configurations.
  • Job Creation: Elastic Transcoder creates a transcoding job based on your settings.
  • Processing: The service processes the transcoding job on AWS infrastructure, ensuring scalability and reliability.
  • Output: Once the job is complete, Elastic Transcoder delivers the transcoded media file to your specified destination.

13.

Discuss the different types of EC2 instances available.

There are several types of EC2 instances available that cater to different workloads and requirements.

  • General Purpose instances (e.g., t3, m5) provide a balance of compute, memory, and network resources for a wide range of applications.
  • Compute Optimized instances (e.g., c5) are designed for high-performance computing, ideal for CPU-intensive workloads.
  • Memory Optimized instances (e.g., r5) offer larger memory capacities, making them suitable for memory-intensive applications and databases.
  • Storage Optimized instances (e.g., i3) prioritize high-speed storage, making them great for data-intensive workloads.
  • GPU instances (e.g., p3) are equipped with powerful graphics processing units, perfect for tasks like machine learning and video rendering.

14.

Mention the AWS consistency models for modern DBs.

AWS offers multiple consistency models for modern databases, catering to a variety of use cases. Here are some of the key consistency models available on AWS:

  • Strong Consistency: This model ensures that all read operations return the most recent write value. It is best suited for applications that prioritize data correctness over low latency.
  • Eventual Consistency: In this model, read operations may return stale data but will eventually become consistent. It is ideal for use cases where low latency is prioritized over immediate consistency.
  • Read After Write Consistency: This model guarantees that reads after a write operation will always return the most recent data. It is useful for applications that need immediate consistency following a write.
  • Session Consistency: This model ensures that all read and write operations within a session appear in a sequential order. It is suitable for use cases where maintaining consistency within a session is critical.

15.

What do you understand about Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)?

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is a secure and customizable networking service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It allows users to create a virtual network in the cloud, which is isolated from other networks.

With VPC, users can define their own IP address range, subnets, and routing tables, giving them complete control over their network environment. VPC also provides features such as network access control lists (ACLs), security groups, and VPN connections to ensure secure communication between the user's VPC and their on-premises infrastructure.

Overall, Amazon VPC offers a flexible and scalable solution for organizations to build their own virtual network in the cloud.

16.

Outline some security products and features available in a virtual private cloud (VPC).

A virtual private cloud (VPC) is a private network in the public cloud that provides a high level of security. Some popular security products available in a VPC include AWS Security Groups, NACLs (network ACLs), VPC flow logs, VPN connections, and AWS Direct Connect.

Security groups and network ACLs help to control incoming and outgoing traffic to and from the virtual private cloud. VPC flow logs provide additional visibility into network traffic. VPN connections allow secure remote access from on-premises locations into a VPC.

AWS Direct Connect provides a dedicated network connection between on-premises infrastructure and AWS cloud, bypassing the public internet for added security.

17.

What do you mean by RTO and RPO in AWS?

RTO refers to the maximum acceptable downtime after a disaster or system failure, and it defines the timeframe within which a system should be recovered and made fully operational again. It represents the target time for restoring normal operations.

RPO, on the other hand, refers to the maximum acceptable data loss after a disaster or system failure. It determines the point in time to which data needs to be recovered. RPO helps in determining how frequently backups and replication should be performed to ensure minimal data loss.

Both RTO and RPO play crucial roles in designing resilient and highly available AWS architectures.

18.

What are the benefits of using AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)?

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) offers a wide range of benefits to users, including enhanced control over their AWS resources. By using IAM, users can create and manage groups, roles, and users, allowing for granular control over who can access specific resources and what actions they are able to perform on those resources.

IAM also integrates with other AWS services, providing additional security features such as multi-factor authentication and encryption of data at rest. Additionally, IAM simplifies compliance reporting by enabling users to generate and download reports that provide a detailed overview of who is accessing AWS resources and when.

19.

What are the various types of load balancers available in AWS?

Application Load Balancers (ALB): Used for routing HTTP/HTTPS traffic at the application layer. ALBs are highly scalable and support advanced features like content-based routing and host-based routing.

Network Load Balancers (NLB): Used for routing TCP/UDP traffic at the transport layer. NLBs provide ultra-low latency and high performance for demanding workloads.

20.

What do you understand by Azure Data Lake Analytics?

Azure Data Lake Analytics is a cloud-based analytical service offered by Microsoft Azure. It provides users with a platform for processing Big Data through distributed processing using Hadoop and Azure Data Lake Store.

The service allows users to run Big Data queries that span across both structured and unstructured data stored in Azure, Office 365, and on-premises storage. This makes it possible for users to perform advanced analytics tasks such as data modeling, data transformations, and machine learning without needing to deploy or maintain their own complex infrastructure.

Azure Data Lake Analytics provides a powerful and scalable way to manage Big Data, enabling organizations to unlock insights that would otherwise be hidden in their data.

21.

What do you mean by U-SQL?

U-SQL is a query language developed by Microsoft for processing and analyzing Big Data. It is mainly used in Azure Data Lake Analytics for running large-scale data processing tasks.

U-SQL combines the benefits of SQL and C# to provide a powerful and flexible language for working with Big Data. It allows users to write scalable and efficient data processing programs by seamlessly integrating SQL-like syntax with procedural programming constructs.

With U-SQL, you can handle structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data easily, and leverage distributed computing capabilities to process large amounts of data quickly. It is a great tool for data analysts and developers working on Big Data projects.

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Wrapping up

If you want to ensure that you do well in your Big Data interview, the above set will help you with the technical part of your Big Data engineer interview. However, your Big Data engineer interview will have technical and soft skills questions too.

Companies and recruiters want to conduct Big Data engineer interviews to get good Big Data engineers. Asking soft skills questions helps recruiters determine whether you will be an asset to the team or not. Thus, while preparing for your Big Data engineer interview, focus on preparing both technical and soft skills questions. Practicing with a friend or colleague can often help in preparing for soft skills questions.

If you think you have the skills to make through Big Data engineer interview at top US MNCs, head over to Turing.com to apply. If you are a recruiter building a team of excellent Big Data engineers, choose from the planetary pool of Big Data engineers at Turing.

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