100+ must know Docker interview questions and answers 2024

Are you a proficient Docker developer who wants to work in a top Silicon Valley company, or are you looking for brilliant Docker developers to assemble your dream team? Look no further. These are the 10 must-know Docker interview questions prepared for you to ace your Docker interview.

Last updated on May 17, 2024

Docker has revolutionized the way software applications are developed, deployed, and run. It offers a framework for containerization that enables the packaging and isolation of programs together with their dependencies. With the increasing adoption of Docker in the industry, it's essential for software developers to have a strong understanding of its concepts and practices.

In this blog, we have curated 100 interview questions with answers to guide Docker developers and hiring managers deepen their understanding of Docker's functionalities and benefits. For Docker developers, this guide aims to serve as your go-to resource, providing an extensive collection of curated interview questions and their answers. On the other hand, for hiring managers seeking to build a skilled and proficient team, this guide will help you assess candidates' Docker expertise effectively.

Basic Docker interview questions and answers


What is the difference between a container and a virtual machine?

A container is an isolated and lightweight runtime environment that shares the host system's OS kernel, libraries, and resources. It provides process-level isolation and allows applications to run consistently across different environments.

On the other hand, a virtual machine is a complete and independent OS installation running on virtualized hardware, providing full isolation and running multiple instances of OS and applications.


What is Docker Engine?

Docker Engine is a client-server application that provides the core functionality for building, running, and managing Docker containers. It consists of a Docker daemon (server) and a Docker CLI (client) that communicate with each other. The Docker Engine manages the container lifecycle, networking, storage, and other essential aspects of the Docker platform.


What is a Docker image?

A Docker image is a lightweight, standalone, and executable software package that includes everything needed to run a piece of software including the code, runtime, libraries, dependencies, and system tools. It is created from a set of instructions defined in a Dockerfile and can be used to create Docker containers.


What is Docker Hub?

Docker Hub is a cloud-based registry provided by Docker that allows developers to store, share, and distribute Docker images. It provides a central repository of public and private Docker images. This makes it easy to discover and access pre-built images created by the Docker community and other organizations.


How do you create a Docker container from an image?

To create a Docker container from an image, you use the docker run command followed by the image name. For example, docker run myimage:tag will create and start a new container based on the specified image. Additional options can be provided to configure container settings such as networking, volume mounts, environment variables, and more.


What is a Dockerfile?

A Dockerfile is a text file that contains a set of instructions for building a Docker image. It provides a declarative and reproducible way to define the software stack, dependencies, and configuration needed for an application. Dockerfiles include commands to copy files, install packages, set environment variables, and execute other actions required to create a Docker image.


Talk about hypervisors and their functions.

A hypervisor, also known as the Virtual Machine Monitor, is a piece of software that allows virtualization to take place. This splits the host system's resources and distributes them to each deployed guest environment.

This implies that on a single host system, different operating systems may be installed. There are two types of hypervisors:

  • Native Hypervisor: Also known as a Bare-metal Hypervisor, this form of hypervisor operates directly on the underlying host system, allowing direct access to the host hardware and eliminating the need for a base OS.
  • Hosted Hypervisor: This form uses the underlying host operating system, which already has an operating system installed.


How do you build a Docker image using a Dockerfile?

To build a Docker image using a Dockerfile, you use the docker build command followed by the path to the directory containing the Dockerfile. For example, docker build -t myimage:tag . will build an image named myimage with the specified tag using the Dockerfile in the current directory. The Docker daemon reads the instructions from the Dockerfile and builds the image layer by layer.


How do you start and stop a Docker container?

To start a Docker container, you use the docker start command followed by the container ID or name. For example, docker start mycontainer will start a container named mycontainer. To stop a running container, you use the docker stop command followed by the container ID or name. For example, docker stop mycontainer will stop the container.


List down the components of Docker.

The following are the three primary Docker components:

  • Docker Client: Performs To communicate with the Docker Host, use the Docker build and run procedures. The Docker command then uses the Docker API to conduct any queries that need to be run.
  • Docker Host: It is a service that allows you to host Docker containers. The Docker daemon, containers, and accompanying images are all included in this package. A connection is established between the Docker daemon and the Registry. The type of metadata related to containerized apps is saved pictures.
  • Registry: Docker images are kept in this folder. A public register and a private registry are also available. Docker Hub and Docker Cloud are two open registries that anybody can utilize.


How do you remove a Docker container?

To remove a Docker container, you use the docker rm command followed by the container ID or name. For example, docker rm mycontainer will remove a container named mycontainer. If the container is currently running, you need to stop it first using the docker stop command.


How can you remove all stopped containers and unused networks in Docker?

Prune is a command that gets rid of all of your stopped containers, unused networks, caches, and hanging images. Prune is one of Docker's most helpful commands. The syntax is, prune docker system $.


When a container exists, is it possible for you to lose data?

No, it is impossible to lose any data as long as a container exists. Until the said container is deleted by you, you will not lose any data stored in that container.


What is Docker Compose?

Docker Compose is an essential tool in the Docker ecosystem that facilitates the management of multi-container applications. It is a command-line tool that allows developers to define and run multi-container Docker applications using a simple YAML file called a "docker-compose.yml."

With Docker Compose, developers can define the services, networks, and volumes required for their application stack, streamlining the process of deploying and orchestrating interconnected containers.


Is there a limit on how many containers you can run in Docker?

The amount of containers that may be run under Docker has no explicitly specified limit. But it all relies on the constraints, particularly the hardware constraints. The size of the program and the number of CPU resources available are two major determinants of this restriction. If your program isn't too large and you have plenty of CPU resources, we can run a lot of containers.


Differentiate between Container Logging and Daemon Logging.

Logging is supported at two levels in Docker: at the Daemon level and the Container level.

  • Daemon Logging

Debug, Info, Error, and Fatal are the four levels of logging used by daemons.
Debug keeps track of everything that happened throughout the daemon's operation.
During the execution of the daemon process, info carries all of the information as well as error information.
Errors refer to errors that happened during the daemon process' execution.
Fatal refers to execution faults that resulted in death.

  • Container Level Logging

You can perform container level logging by executing this command: sudo docker run

–it <container_name> /bin/bash

To check for container-level logs,

enter: sudo docker logs <container_id>.


How will you use Docker for multiple application environments?

Docker's compose capability will come in handy here. You should describe various services, networks, and containers, as well as volume mapping, in a tidy manner in the docker-compose file, and then just run the command "docker-compose up."
You need to describe the requirements and processes which are server-specific to execute the application, especially when there are so many environments involved. It may be dev, staging, uat, or production servers. For example, you should create environment-specific docker-compose files with the name "docker-compose.environment.yml" and then based on the environment, set it up and execute the application.


Does Docker provide support for IPV6?

Docker does, in fact, support IPv6. Only Docker daemons running on Linux servers support IPv6 networking. However, if you want the Docker daemon to support IPv6, you must edit /etc/docker/daemon.json and change the ipv6 key to true.


How do you scale Docker containers horizontally?

To scale Docker containers horizontally, you can use Docker Swarm or a container orchestration tool like Kubernetes. With Docker Swarm, you can create a cluster of Docker nodes and use the docker service command to scale the desired number of replicas for service across multiple nodes. For example, docker service scale myservice=5 will scale the service named myservice to 5 replicas.


What is the difference between the CMD and ENTRYPOINT instructions in a Dockerfile?

Here are some differences between CMD and ENTRYPOINT:

Image 07-08-23 at 1.21 PM.webp


What is the purpose of volumes in Docker?

Volumes in Docker are used to persist and share data between containers and between containers and the host system. They provide a way to store and manage data separately from the container's lifecycle, ensuring that data is preserved even if the container is stopped or removed. Volumes can be used for database files, application configurations, log files, and other types of persistent data.


Is it possible for a container to restart by itself?

Yes, but only when specific docker-defined rules are used in conjunction with the docker run command. The policies that are accessible are as follows:

  • Off: If the container is stopped or fails, it will not be resumed.
  • On-failure: In this case, the container restarts itself only if it encounters failures unrelated to the user.
  • Unless-stopped: This policy assures that a container may only resume when the user issues a command to stop it.
  • Always: In this form of policy, regardless of failure or stoppage, the container is always resumed.

This is how you use these policies:

docker run -dit — restart [restart-policy-value] [container_name]


How do you expose ports in a Docker container?

Ports can be exposed in a Docker container by using the -p or --publish option with the docker run command. For example, docker run -p 8080:80 mycontainer will expose port 80 in the container and map it to port 8080 on the host system. This allows traffic to reach the container's application through the specified host port.


How do you pass environment variables to a Docker container?

Environment variables can be passed to a Docker container using the -e or --env option with the docker run command. For example, docker run -e MY_VAR=myvalue mycontainer will set the environment variable MY_VAR to myvalue within the container. Multiple environment variables can be passed by specifying multiple -e options or by using a .env file.


What is the difference between Docker restart policies "no", "on-failure", and "always"?

The Docker restart policies determine the behavior of a container when it exits or when Docker restarts. The "no" restart policy means Docker will not restart the container if it exits. The "on-failure" restart policy specifies that Docker will restart the container only if it exits with a non-zero exit code. The "always" restart policy tells Docker to always restart the container regardless of its exit status.


What is the purpose of the Docker registry?

The Docker registry is a centralized repository that stores Docker images. It serves as a distribution and collaboration platform, allowing users to publish, discover, and retrieve container images. The Docker registry can be either Docker Hub or a private registry. It provides a reliable source for sharing and deploying containerized applications.


What is the difference between a Docker image and a container?

Here are some of the differences between a Docker image and a Docker container:

Image 07-08-23 at 1.27 PM.webp


How do you update a Docker image?

To update a Docker image, you typically rebuild it using an updated version of the source code or dependencies. This involves modifying the Dockerfile or build configuration, running the build process, and tagging the new image with an appropriate version or tag. Once the updated image is built, it can be pushed to a registry and used to create new containers or update existing ones.


What is the difference between a base image and a child image in Docker?

A base image, also known as a parent image, is the starting point for building a Docker image. It provides the foundational software stack, OS, and runtime environment.

Meanwhile, a child image, also called a derived image, is created by extending or customizing a base image. It includes the base image's contents along with additional layers defined in the child image's Dockerfile. A child image inherits the base image's layers and can add its own modifications.


What is the purpose of the CMD instruction in a Dockerfile?

The CMD instruction in a Dockerfile defines the default command and arguments that are executed when a container is run without specifying a command. It provides a way to set the container's main executable or script.

If the Dockerfile contains multiple CMD instructions, only the last one is used. The CMD instruction can be overridden by providing a command and arguments when running the container.


How do you inspect the metadata of a Docker image?

You can inspect the metadata of a Docker image using the docker image inspect command followed by the image name or ID. For example, docker image inspect myimage will display detailed information about the specified image including its tags, layers, size, creation date, exposed ports, environment variables, and more. The output is in JSON format which allows you to extract specific fields programmatically.


What is Docker Swarm?

Docker Swarm is a native clustering and orchestration solution provided by Docker for managing a cluster of Docker nodes and deploying and scaling containerized applications. It allows users to turn a group of Docker hosts into a single, virtual Docker host, making it easier to manage and scale containerized applications across multiple nodes.

Docker Swarm provides features for service discovery, load balancing, rolling updates, scaling, and fault tolerance. It simplifies the deployment and management of containerized applications across a cluster of machines.


What is the difference between a Docker container and a Kubernetes pod?

A Docker container is a lightweight and isolated runtime environment that runs a single instance of an application. It is managed by Docker and provides process-level isolation. On the other hand, a Kubernetes pod is a higher-level abstraction that can contain one or more Docker containers (or other container runtimes). Pods provide co-located and co-managed containers, sharing networking and storage resources within a Kubernetes cluster.

Docker containers are the core units of application packaging and isolation, while Kubernetes pods are higher-level abstractions that group one or more containers together within a shared context, simplifying their management and deployment in the Kubernetes environment.


How does Docker handle container isolation and security?

Docker provides isolation and security for containers through several mechanisms. It uses Linux kernel features like namespaces, control groups (cgroups), and seccomp profiles to create an isolated environment for each container.

Namespaces provide process-level isolation, cgroups manage resource allocation, and seccomp restricts system calls. Docker also provides security features like user namespaces, image signing, and security scanning to protect against vulnerabilities.


What is the purpose of a Docker volume driver?

A Docker volume driver is a plugin that extends Docker's volume management capabilities. It allows you to use external storage systems or services such as Docker volumes.

Volume drivers enable features like networked storage, distributed filesystems, and integration with cloud storage providers. They provide a flexible and scalable way to handle persistent data in Docker containers across different environments and infrastructure setups.


How do you deploy a Docker container to a remote host?

To deploy a Docker container to a remote host, you typically build a Docker image locally and push it to a registry accessible by the remote host. Then, on the remote host, you pull the image from the registry and run it using the docker run command.

Alternatively, you can use container orchestration tools like Docker Swarm or Kubernetes to manage and deploy containers across a cluster of remote hosts.


What are the benefits of using Docker in a microservices architecture?

Docker offers several benefits in a microservices architecture:

Isolation: Each microservice can run in its own container, providing process-level isolation and avoiding conflicts between dependencies.

Scalability: Docker containers can be easily scaled up or down to handle varying workloads, ensuring optimal resource utilization.

Deployment flexibility: Containers are portable and can be deployed consistently across different environments, making it easier to move or replicate microservices.

Service composition: Docker's container networking allows microservices to communicate with each other easily and securely.
Rapid iteration: Docker's fast image building and deployment enable rapid iteration and continuous delivery of microservices.

Rapid iteration: Docker's fast image building and deployment enable rapid iteration and continuous delivery of microservices.


How do you debug issues in a Docker container?

There are several techniques to debug issues in a Docker container:

Logging: Docker captures the standard output and standard error streams of containers, making it easy to inspect logs using the docker logs command.

Shell access: You can access a running container's shell using the docker exec command with the -it option. This allows you to investigate and troubleshoot issues interactively.

Image inspection: You can inspect the Docker image's contents and configuration using docker image inspect. This lets you check for potential misconfigurations or missing dependencies.

Health checks: Docker supports defining health checks for containers, allowing you to monitor the health status and automatically restart or take action based on predefined conditions.


What is the purpose of the "docker exec" command?

The docker exec command is used to run a command within a running Docker container. It provides a way to execute commands inside a container's environment such as running a shell, running scripts, or interacting with running processes. For example, docker exec -it mycontainer bash opens a shell session within the container named mycontainer.


How do you limit the CPU and memory usage of a Docker container?

Docker allows you to limit the CPU and memory usage of a container using resource constraints. You can set the CPU limit with the --cpu option and the memory limit with the --memory option when running the container using the docker run command.

For example, docker run --cpu 2 --memory 1g mycontainer limits the container to use a maximum of 2 CPU cores and 1GB of memory.


What is the significance of the "Dockerfile.lock" file?

The "Dockerfile.lock" file is not a standard Docker file or artifact. It might refer to a file created by a specific build tool or framework that captures the state of the dependencies and build process at a given point in time.

It can be used to achieve deterministic builds, ensuring that the same set of dependencies and build steps are used consistently across different environments or when rebuilding the image.


How do you create a multi-stage build in Docker?

Multi-stage builds in Docker allow you to create optimized Docker images by leveraging multiple build stages. Each stage can use a different base image and perform specific build steps. To create a multi-stage build, you define multiple FROM instructions in the Dockerfile, each representing a different build stage.

Intermediate build artifacts can be copied between stages using the COPY --from instruction. This technique helps reduce the image size by excluding build tools and dependencies from the final image.

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Intermediate Docker interview questions and answers


How do you link containers in Docker?

Container linking is an older method of connecting containers in Docker. It is now considered legacy and not recommended for newer applications. Instead, it is recommended to use Docker networks to enable communication between containers.


What are Docker networks?

Docker networks are virtual networks that allow containers to communicate with each other securely. They provide an isolated environment for containers and enable seamless connectivity between them.

Docker networks can be created using different drivers, such as bridge, overlay, and host, depending on the specific requirements of the application.


How do you create a custom Docker network?

To create a custom Docker network, you can use the docker network create command followed by the desired network name. For example:

docker network create mynetwork

This command creates a new custom network named "mynetwork" using the default bridge driver. You can also specify a different driver using the --driver option if needed.


What is the purpose of the bridge network driver in Docker?

The bridge network driver is the most commonly used driver and is suitable for most applications. It provides a default network bridge called "bridge" that allows containers to communicate with each other on the same host. It enables containers to connect to each other and to the outside world through the host machine's network interface.


What are Docker volumes and how do they work?

Docker volumes are a way to persist and share data between containers and the host machine. They are directories or file systems that exist outside the container's writable layer. They can be created and managed using the docker volume command or by specifying them in a Docker Compose file.

Docker volumes provide a reliable and efficient method for storing data that needs to persist beyond the lifetime of a container.


How do you manage data persistence in Docker containers?

Docker provides several options for managing data persistence in containers. One approach is to use Docker volumes, which allow you to create and attach volumes to containers. This ensures that the data persists even if the container is removed or replaced.

Another option is to mount host directories or files into containers using bind mounts, which provide a direct link between the container and the host file system. Additionally, you can leverage external storage systems or cloud-based solutions for storing data outside of the container environment.


How do you update a Docker container without losing data?

The steps to update a Docker container without losing data are:

  • Create a backup of any important data stored within the container.
  • Stop the container gracefully using the docker stop command.
  • Pull the latest version of the container image using docker pull.
  • Start a new container using the updated image, making sure to map any necessary volumes or bind mounts.
  • Verify that the new container is functioning correctly and that the data is still intact.


What is the difference between COPY and ADD instructions in a Dockerfile?

In a Dockerfile, the COPY instruction copies files or directories from the host machine to the container's filesystem. It is used for straightforward file copying.

On the other hand, the ADD instruction has additional capabilities. It can copy local files, extract compressed archives (tar, gzip, etc.) into the container, and even download files from URLs and automatically unpack them. Due to its added complexity and potential security risks, it is generally recommended to use COPY unless the extra functionality of ADD is explicitly required.


What are Docker labels and how do you use them?

Docker labels are key-value metadata pairs that can be applied to Docker objects such as containers, images, and volumes. They provide a way to add custom metadata to these objects for organization, identification, and categorization purposes.

Labels can be set using the --label flag when creating or modifying Docker objects. They can be accessed and filtered using various Docker commands like docker ps or docker inspect.


How do you secure Docker containers?

Securing Docker containers involves implementing a multi-layered approach. Some recommended practices include:

  • Using trusted base images from reputable sources.
  • Regularly updating Docker and the underlying host system with security patches.
  • Employing secure configurations such as limiting container privileges and resources.
  • Scanning container images for vulnerabilities using security tools.
  • Implementing network segmentation and access controls.
  • Enforcing strong authentication and access controls for Docker daemon.
  • Monitoring container activity and logging for security analysis.
  • Applying the least privilege principle and implementing container-specific security measures like AppArmor or seccomp profiles.


How do you create a Docker Swarm cluster?

These are the steps to create a Docker Swarm cluster:

  • Initialize a Swarm on the manager node using the command docker swarm init.
  • Join worker nodes to the Swarm by running the command provided by the previous step on each worker node.
  • Verify the cluster status by executing docker node ls on the manager node. It should show the manager and worker nodes as part of the Swarm.
  • You now have a functioning Docker Swarm cluster and you can deploy and manage services using Swarm features.


What is the purpose of Docker secrets?

Docker secrets provide a secure and convenient way to manage sensitive data, such as passwords, API keys, and certificates, within a Docker Swarm cluster. Secrets are encrypted and only made available to services that have explicit access. They help ensure that sensitive information is kept confidential and not exposed in clear text or stored in version control systems.


How do you manage secrets in Docker Swarm?

To manage secrets in Docker Swarm, you can follow these steps:

  • Create a secret using the docker secret create command, specifying the secret's name and the file or input source containing the secret data.
  • Deploy a service or update an existing service with access to the secret using the --secret flag in the docker service create or docker service update commands.
  • Within the service, the secret is made available as a file in the specified location (e.g., /run/secrets/<secret_name>). The service can read and use the secret from that file.


How does Docker handle service discovery in Swarm mode?

In Docker Swarm mode, Docker provides an in-built service discovery mechanism. When you deploy a service to the Swarm cluster, it is automatically assigned a DNS name that can be used to reach the service internally.

Each service is accessible via its service name within the Swarm. Docker's built-in DNS server automatically resolves the service name to the appropriate container IP addresses. This enables seamless communication between services within the cluster.


What is Docker overlay networking?

Docker overlay networking is a feature that allows multiple Docker hosts/nodes to communicate with each other across different physical or virtual networks. It enables containers running on different hosts to be part of the same virtual network even if they reside on separate physical networks.

Overlay networking is a key component in Docker Swarm mode and is used to create a distributed network fabric that spans the Swarm cluster.


What is the purpose of Docker container orchestration?

Docker container orchestration refers to the management and coordination of multiple containers in a distributed environment. It involves automating the deployment, scaling, scheduling, and monitoring of containers to ensure high availability, load balancing, fault tolerance, and efficient resource utilization.

Container orchestration platforms like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, or HashiCorp Nomad provide tools and features to simplify the management of containerized applications at scale.


How do you monitor Docker containers?

There are various ways to monitor Docker containers, including:

  • Using Docker's built-in container monitoring commands, such as docker stats and docker container stats, to view resource usage statistics.
  • Integrating with container monitoring and logging tools like Prometheus, Grafana, or ELK stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) to collect and analyze container metrics and logs.
  • Leveraging container orchestration platforms that offer built-in monitoring capabilities such as Docker Swarm's service metrics or Kubernetes' metrics API.
  • Using specialized monitoring agents or tools that provide container-level insights and integration with broader monitoring and alerting systems.


What are some best practices for using Docker in production environments?

Some best practices for using Docker in production environments include:

  • Building and using lightweight container images to improve deployment speed and reduce the attack surface.
  • Regularly updating Docker and the underlying host system with security patches.
  • Implementing container orchestration platforms, such as Docker Swarm or Kubernetes, to manage containers at scale and provide features like load balancing and service discovery.
  • Configuring resource limits for containers to prevent resource contention and ensure fair allocation.
  • Monitoring container health, resource usage, and application metrics for performance optimization and troubleshooting.
  • Implementing secure network configurations such as using private networks and encrypting container traffic.
  • Backing up critical data and using volume or storage solutions that provide data persistence and redundancy.
  • Implementing a comprehensive security strategy, including container vulnerability scanning, access controls, and least privilege principles.


How do you automate the deployment of Docker containers?

The deployment of Docker containers can be automated using tools and practices like:

Docker Compose: Define the application's services, networks, and volumes in a Compose file. Use the docker-compose command to deploy the containers with a single command.

Docker Swarm or Kubernetes: Utilize container orchestration platforms to define and deploy the application as a service or a set of pods/replicas. This allows automatic scaling, load balancing, and self-healing capabilities.

Continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines: Integrate Docker into CI/CD workflows using tools like Jenkins, GitLab CI/CD, or CircleCI to automatically build, test, and deploy Docker containers based on code changes.

Infrastructure-as-code (IaC): Use tools like Terraform or AWS CloudFormation to define the infrastructure stack, including Docker hosts/clusters, networks, and storage, to enable automated provisioning and container deployment.


How do you perform rolling updates in Docker Swarm?

Rolling updates in Docker Swarm can be performed by following these steps:

  • Update the service you're interested in by replacing its current Docker image with a newer version.
  • Use the docker service update command with the --update-parallelism and --update-delay flags to control the number of containers updated simultaneously and the delay between updates.
  • Docker Swarm will gradually update the containers in a rolling fashion, ensuring that the service remains available during the update process.
  • Monitor the update progress using docker service ps < service-name > and check for any issues or failures.
  • Once the update is complete, verify that the new version of the service is running as expected.


What is Docker content trust?

Docker Content Trust is a security feature that uses digital signatures to verify the authenticity and integrity of Docker images. It ensures that only trusted and signed images are used in a Docker environment, preventing the execution of potentially malicious or tampered images.

When Docker Content Trust is enabled, Docker clients verify the authenticity of images using cryptographic keys before pulling and running them.


How do you use Docker with Kubernetes?

Docker can be used as the container runtime within a Kubernetes cluster. When deploying applications on Kubernetes, Docker is responsible for creating and managing containers on each node.

Kubernetes uses the Docker API to interact with Docker and perform container-related operations such as pulling images, creating containers, and managing their lifecycle. Docker images are typically stored in a container registry accessible to the Kubernetes cluster.


What are the differences between Docker Swarm and HashiCorp Nomad?

Docker Swarm and HashiCorp Nomad are container orchestration platforms, but they have some differences:

  • Swarm is Docker's built-in orchestration solution, tightly integrated with Docker. Nomad, on the other hand, is a general-purpose workload orchestrator that supports various types of workloads including containers.
  • Swarm is primarily focused on managing Docker containers, whereas Nomad supports multiple container runtimes including Docker. It also supports other workload types such as VMs and standalone executables.
  • Swarm provides a simpler and more straightforward setup and configuration compared to Nomad, which offers more flexibility and advanced features like job scheduling and multi-datacenter support.
  • Nomad has a more decentralized architecture with separate agents running on each node. Swarm follows a more centralized model with manager and worker nodes.
  • Swarm has tighter integration with other Docker tools and ecosystem components. Nomad offers a broader set of integrations and can be used with various infrastructure providers.


How do you configure automatic container restarts in Docker?

Automatic container restarts can be configured in Docker by using the --restart flag when running a container. The --restart flag accepts different policies such as "no" (no automatic restart), "always" (restart regardless of the exit status), "on-failure" (restart only if the container exits with a non-zero exit status), and "unless-stopped" (restart always except when explicitly stopped).

For example, to configure a container to automatically restart, you can use the following command:

Image 07-08-23 at 2.20 PM.webp


What is the role of the Docker API in container management?

The Docker API provides a programmatic interface to interact with the Docker daemon and manage containers, images, networks, and other Docker resources. It allows developers and system administrators to automate container-related tasks. These include creating and managing containers, pulling and pushing images, inspecting container status, and interacting with Docker Swarm or other orchestration platforms.

The Docker API is used by various tools and libraries to integrate Docker into larger systems or build custom container management solutions.


How do you share data between containers in Docker?

Docker provides several ways to share data between containers:

Using Docker volumes: Create a shared volume and mount it into multiple containers. Changes made by one container will be visible to others sharing the same volume.

Sharing a directory: Mount a host directory into multiple containers, allowing them to read and write data to the shared directory on the host machine.

Utilizing network services: Containers can communicate with each other over the network using exposed ports or internal network connections.

Using shared data stores: Containers can access shared databases, object storage systems, and other external data sources to exchange data.


How do you manage network connectivity between Docker containers and the host machine?

Docker manages network connectivity between containers and the host machine using virtual network interfaces. By default, Docker sets up a bridge network interface on the host that connects to containers using internal IP addresses. Containers can communicate with each other through the bridge network and with the outside world through the host machine's network interface.

Docker also provides options to create custom networks and specify network configurations, such as IP ranges, DNS settings, and port mappings, to control network connectivity between containers and the host.


What is the purpose of the "docker network inspect" command?

The docker network inspect command is used to retrieve detailed information about a Docker network. It provides information such as the network's name, ID, driver, subnet configuration, connected containers, and other properties.

This command is useful for troubleshooting network connectivity issues, verifying network configurations, and obtaining information about network interfaces and IP addresses associated with containers.


How do you configure health checks for Docker containers?

Health checks can be configured for Docker containers using the HEALTHCHECK instruction in the Dockerfile or by specifying health check options during container runtime. The HEALTHCHECK instruction allows you to define a command or script that periodically checks the container's health status.

Docker monitors the output of the health check command and updates the container's health status accordingly. Health check options can also be specified in the docker run command using flags like --health-cmd, --health-interval, and --health-retries.


How do you configure a custom logging driver in Docker?

To configure a custom logging driver in Docker, you can follow these steps:

  • Create a custom logging driver plugin or ensure that the desired logging driver is installed and available on the Docker host.
  • Modify the Docker daemon configuration file (usually located at /etc/docker/daemon.json) to include the logging driver configuration.

For example:
{ "log-driver": "mycustomdriver", "log-opts": { "option1": "value1", "option2": "value2" } }

Replace "mycustomdriver" with the name of the custom logging driver and configure any additional options specific to the driver.

  • Restart the Docker daemon for the changes to take effect.
  • Start containers with the custom logging driver using the --log-driver flag.

For example:
docker run --log-driver=mycustomdriver < image >


What is the purpose of the "docker system prune" command?

The docker system prune command is used to clean up unused Docker resources including stopped containers, unused networks, dangling images, and unused volumes. It helps reclaim disk space and improve system performance by removing resources that are no longer needed.

Note: The docker system prune command should be used with caution as it permanently deletes unused resources. Any data associated with them will be lost.


How do you use Docker secrets in a non-Swarm environment?

Docker secrets are primarily designed for Docker Swarm environments. However, in a non-Swarm environment, you can still utilize secret management solutions provided by external tools or by your container orchestration platform.

For example, if you are using Kubernetes, you can leverage Kubernetes Secrets to manage and inject sensitive data into containers. Alternatively, you can use environment variables, encrypted configuration files, and secure key management systems to handle sensitive information within individual containers.

The approach will depend on the specific requirements and tools used in your non-Swarm environment.

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Advanced Docker interview questions and answers


How do you achieve high availability with Docker Swarm?

High availability in Docker Swarm can be achieved by running multiple manager nodes in a swarm cluster. Manager nodes are responsible for managing the swarm state and coordinating tasks. By having multiple manager nodes, the swarm cluster can continue to operate even if one or more manager nodes become unavailable.

Additionally, by using Docker's built-in swarm mode features like service replication, automatic container rescheduling, and distributed application placement, the swarm can distribute containers across multiple worker nodes. This ensures high availability and fault tolerance.


What are the differences between Docker Swarm and Kubernetes?

Docker Swarm and Kubernetes are both container orchestration platforms, but they have some key differences.

Docker Swarm is Docker's native orchestration tool and is simpler to set up and use compared to Kubernetes. Swarm has a smaller learning curve and is ideal for smaller-scale deployments.

On the other hand, Kubernetes is a more complex and feature-rich platform with a larger ecosystem. It provides advanced features like automatic scaling, rolling updates, service discovery, and load balancing. It is better suited for larger-scale and more complex deployments.


How do you implement blue-green deployments with Docker?

Blue-green deployments can be implemented with Docker by following these steps:

  • Set up two identical environments, each with its own Docker Swarm cluster.
  • Deploy the new version of your application to the "blue" environment.
  • Verify and test the new version in the "blue" environment.
  • Once the new version is deemed stable, switch the load balancer or routing rules to route traffic to the "blue" environment.
  • Monitor the application in the "blue" environment to ensure it is functioning correctly.
  • If any issues arise, you can quickly switch back to the "green" environment by reverting the load balancer or routing rules.
  • Once you are confident in the stability of the "blue" environment, the "green" environment can be updated with the new version for future deployments.


What is the purpose of the Docker Config feature in Swarm mode?

The Docker Config feature in Swarm mode allows you to manage and distribute configuration files to services running in the Swarm cluster. It decouples the configuration from the container image, making it easier to update configurations without rebuilding or redeploying containers.

Configs can be created from a file or directly from an external data source. The Config feature ensures that services in the swarm cluster use the correct and up-to-date configurations. This simplifies the management of application settings and reduces the need for manual intervention.


How do you manage secrets in Docker using external secret stores?

Docker provides support for managing secrets securely using external secret stores. To manage secrets in Docker, you can:

  • Create or obtain the required secret values
  • Store the secrets in an external secret store like HashiCorp Vault or Azure Key Vault
  • Configure Docker to use the external secret store as the backend for secret management
  • Create secrets in Docker Swarm or Kubernetes using the Docker CLI or API, referencing the secret values stored in the external secret store
  • The secrets are securely retrieved at runtime and made available to the containers in a controlled manner, ensuring sensitive information remains protected.


What is the purpose of the health check feature in Docker?

The health check feature in Docker allows you to define a command or a script that periodically checks the health of a containerized application. Docker monitors the health check and provides information about the container's health status.

This information can be used by orchestrators like Docker Swarm or Kubernetes to make informed decisions about container lifecycle management such as restarting or rescheduling unhealthy containers. The health check feature helps ensure the availability and reliability of applications running in Docker containers.


How do you securely manage secrets in a Dockerized application?

Docker provides a built-in mechanism called Docker Swarm Secrets to securely manage sensitive information like passwords, API keys, or certificates.

Using Docker Swarm Secrets:

Create a secret:

Image 07-08-23 at 3.40 PM.webp

Deploy the service with the secret:

Image 07-08-23 at 3.41 PM.webp

In this example, we create a secret called my_secret and use it in the myapp service. The actual secret value is not stored in the Docker Compose file, enhancing security.


How do you achieve load balancing with Docker Swarm?

Load balancing in Docker Swarm can be achieved by using the built-in load balancing feature. When a service is deployed in a Docker Swarm cluster, multiple containers are created to run the service.

The Swarm's load balancer automatically distributes incoming requests across the available containers running the service, ensuring that the load is evenly distributed. This provides high availability and scalability for the application.

Additionally, you can configure advanced load balancing options such as session stickiness and routing modes to customize the behavior of the load balancer according to your application's requirements.


What is Docker's support for GPU acceleration?

Docker provides support for GPU acceleration through the use of NVIDIA Docker. NVIDIA Docker is a toolkit that extends Docker's capabilities to work seamlessly with NVIDIA GPUs. It allows containers to access and utilize the GPU resources available on the host system, enabling GPU-accelerated computations within Docker containers.

This is particularly useful for applications that require high-performance computing, machine learning, and deep learning tasks that can benefit from GPU processing power.


How do you troubleshoot issues with Docker containers?

Troubleshooting Docker containers involves several steps:

  • Check the container's logs for any error messages or abnormal behavior using the docker logs command.
  • Inspect the container's metadata and runtime details with commands like docker inspect or docker stats.
  • Verify the container's resource allocation and constraints such as CPU and memory limits.
  • Check the host system's logs for any related issues or resource constraints.
  • If networking issues are suspected, examine the container's network configuration and connectivity.
  • Ensure that the Docker daemon and related services are running correctly.
  • Consult the Docker documentation, community forums, and relevant online resources for specific error messages or known issues.
  • If necessary, recreate or redeploy the container to rule out any configuration or state-related issues.


What are some common Docker security vulnerabilities and how do you mitigate them?

Common Docker security vulnerabilities and their mitigation include:

Insecure container images: Mitigate by using official or trusted images from reputable sources. Regularly update images to patch vulnerabilities and scan images for known security issues.

Excessive container privileges: Mitigate by running containers with the principle of least privilege. Avoid running containers as root, and leverage user namespaces or seccomp profiles to restrict container privileges.

Inadequate container isolation: Mitigate by using appropriate resource constraints. Leverage Docker's built-in isolation mechanisms like namespaces and control groups, and enable container runtime security features like AppArmor or SELinux.

Unsecured Docker daemon: Mitigate by securing the Docker daemon with TLS certificates. Enable access control with user authentication and authorization. Use firewall rules to limit network access to the Docker daemon.

Insider threats: Mitigate by implementing strong access control policies, regularly auditing and monitoring container activities, and educating users about security best practices.

Network security risks: Mitigate by securing container network communications using encryption and network segmentation. Regularly update Docker to benefit from security patches and fixes.


How do you monitor Docker container resource usage?

Docker provides several options for monitoring container resource usage:

Docker Stats: Use the docker stats command to view real-time resource usage statistics of running containers including CPU, memory, network, and disk I/O.

Container-specific monitoring tools: Utilize container monitoring tools like Prometheus, cAdvisor, or Datadog which collect and aggregate resource metrics from Docker containers for monitoring and analysis.

Docker API: Query the Docker API to retrieve container resource metrics programmatically. The API provides endpoints for accessing detailed container statistics and usage information.

Container orchestration platforms: Platforms like Docker Swarm or Kubernetes typically offer built-in container monitoring capabilities, allowing you to monitor and visualize container resource usage at scale.


How do you automate the scaling of Docker services in Swarm mode?

Docker Swarm provides built-in support for automating the scaling of services. To automate service scaling in Swarm mode, you can:

  • Set the desired number of replicas for the service during service creation or update
  • Define scaling policies such as specifying the minimum and maximum number of replicas and the conditions triggering scale-up and scale-down actions
  • Utilize built-in load balancing and container placement strategies to distribute the workload across the swarm cluster
  • Monitor service metrics and utilize external tools or scripts to trigger scaling actions based on custom rules or conditions
  • Integrate with container orchestration tools or frameworks that provide advanced scaling features, such as Kubernetes's Horizontal Pod Autoscaler, or third-party tools like Prometheus with custom scaling scripts.


What is Docker Machine and how is it used?

Docker Machine is a command-line tool that simplifies the process of provisioning and managing Docker hosts. It automates the creation of virtual machines and cloud instances and installs Docker on them.

It supports various platforms including local hypervisors, cloud providers, and remote Docker hosts. It allows developers to easily create Docker hosts with different configurations such as specifying CPU, memory, storage, and networking settings.

Docker Machine is particularly useful for local development environments, setting up test clusters, and deploying Docker on different infrastructure providers.


How do you configure Docker to use a different container runtime?

Docker can be configured to use a different container runtime by following these steps:

  • Install the alternative container runtime on the host system. For example, containerd or CRI-O.
  • Stop the Docker daemon if it is running.
  • Update the Docker daemon's configuration file (/etc/docker/daemon.json) and specify the runtimes section with the desired runtime configuration.
  • Start the Docker daemon. It will now use the specified container runtime.
  • Verify the new container runtime by checking the output of docker info command and inspecting the runtime details.


What is the purpose of Docker namespaces?

Docker namespaces provide process isolation and resource control for containers. They create an isolated environment for each container, giving the illusion that each container has its own isolated view of the system. Docker uses various namespaces such as PID namespace (processes), network namespace (networking resources), mount namespace (file systems), and more.

By leveraging namespaces, Docker ensures that containers are isolated from each other and the host system. This prevents processes within containers from interfering with or accessing resources outside their namespace.


How do you limit the resources consumed by a Docker container?

Docker allows you to limit the resources consumed by a container by using resource constraints. You can limit CPU usage, memory usage, disk I/O, and network bandwidth. Resource constraints can be set during container creation or updated dynamically using the docker update command. For example:

Limiting CPU usage: Use the --cpu-period and --cpu-quota options to specify the CPU share and the maximum amount of CPU time a container can use.

Limiting memory usage: Use the --memory and --memory-swap options to restrict the amount of memory a container can use and prevent it from exceeding the specified limit.

Limiting disk I/O and network bandwidth: Docker provides options like --device-read-bps, --device-write-bps, --device-read-iops, and --device-write-iops to control the rate of I/O operations a container can perform.


How do you configure network policies in Docker?

Network policies in Docker can be configured using the ingress and egress rules of the Docker swarm mode. Here is how you can configure network policies:

  • Define ingress rules to control inbound network traffic to the services in the swarm. Ingress rules allow you to specify source and destination ports, IP ranges, and service names.
  • Define egress rules to control outbound network traffic from the services in the swarm. Egress rules enable you to specify the destination ports, IP ranges, and service names.
  • Use labels and placement constraints to ensure that services are deployed on specific nodes with desired network policies.
  • Leverage external firewalls or network security groups to enforce network-level policies beyond Docker's built-in features.


What is the difference between a Docker image and a Docker layer?

In Docker, an image is a read-only template that contains everything needed to run a container. It includes the application code, dependencies, runtime environment, and configurations. Images are created from a Dockerfile or obtained from a registry.

On the other hand, a layer is a fundamental component of a Docker image. Each layer represents a set of filesystem changes on top of the previous layer. Layers are created during the image build process, where each command in the Dockerfile adds a new layer.

Layers are immutable and can be shared across multiple images, making the Docker image build process more efficient by reusing common layers between different images.


How do you manage Docker container logs?

Docker provides various options for managing container logs:

View logs in real-time: Use the docker logs command to view the logs of a running container in real time. By default, Docker captures both standard output (stdout) and standard error (stderr) streams.

Retrieve logs from stopped containers: Docker retains the logs of stopped containers, allowing you to inspect them later using the docker logs command with the container's ID or name.

Configure log drivers: Docker supports multiple log drivers such as json-file, syslog, journald, and more. You can configure the log driver in the Docker daemon's configuration file (/etc/docker/daemon.json) or when starting a container using the --log-driver option.

Forward logs to external systems: Docker allows you to configure log forwarding to external systems like Elasticsearch, Fluentd, and Splunk using log driver plugins.

Use third-party logging tools: Utilize third-party tools like the ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana), Graylog, or Prometheus with Grafana for advanced log management, analysis, and visualization.


What is the purpose of Docker secrets in Swarm mode?

Docker secrets in Swarm mode provide a secure way to manage sensitive information, such as API keys, database credentials, or TLS certificates, required by services running in the swarm. Secrets are stored encrypted and are only accessible to the services that have explicit permission to use them.

With secrets, you can separate the management of sensitive data from the container images. This makes it easier to rotate, update, and manage secrets without redeploying or rebuilding containers. Secrets can be created, updated, and managed using the Docker CLI or API.


How do you manage Docker images in a private registry?

To manage Docker images in a private registry, you can:

  • Set up a private Docker registry using tools like Docker Registry or third-party solutions like Harbor or Nexus Repository Manager
  • Push Docker images to the private registry using the docker push command and specify the registry's address and credentials
  • Pull Docker images from the private registry using the docker pull command and provide the image's name and registry information
  • Manage access and permissions to the private registry by configuring authentication and authorization settings
  • Apply image retention and deletion policies to manage storage usage and keep the registry organized
  • Monitor the private registry for storage capacity, performance, and security.


How do you perform load testing on Docker containers?

Load testing on Docker containers can be performed using tools specifically designed for load testing such as Apache JMeter, Gatling, Locust, and Artillery. To perform load testing, you need to:

  • Prepare a load testing scenario and define the desired load patterns, number of concurrent users, and requests per second
  • Configure the load testing tool to target the endpoints exposed by your Docker containers
  • Run the load testing tool which will simulate concurrent users and send requests to your containerized application
  • Monitor the performance metrics, such as response times, throughput, and error rates, to evaluate the application's behavior under load
  • Adjust the load testing parameters as needed to simulate different scenarios and test the application's scalability and performance.


How do you create a custom Docker network driver?

To create a custom Docker network driver, you can follow these steps:

  • Develop the network driver code according to the Docker network plugin API specifications.
  • Package the network driver code into a container image or binary file.
  • Deploy the custom network driver on the Docker host where you want to use it.
  • Configure Docker to use the custom network driver by updating the Docker daemon's configuration file (/etc/docker/daemon.json) with the appropriate driver configuration.
  • Restart the Docker daemon for the changes to take effect.
  • Verify the availability of the custom network driver by using the docker network ls command which should list the custom network driver as an available network driver.


What is the purpose of the Docker content trust feature?

The Docker content trust feature ensures the integrity and authenticity of Docker images. When enabled, the content trust uses digital signatures to verify the authenticity and integrity of images before they are pulled or run. It prevents the use of unauthorized or tampered images and provides an additional layer of security.

Content trust relies on cryptographic key pairs and a trust infrastructure, such as Notary, to sign and verify images. By enabling content trust, Docker ensures that only trusted and signed images are used within the Docker environment.


How do you perform rolling updates with Docker Compose?

Rolling updates can be performed with Docker Compose by following these steps:

  • Define a Docker Compose file that describes your services and their configurations.
  • Specify the desired number of replicas for each service and define the update strategy as "rolling".
  • Build or pull the updated Docker images for your services.
  • Run the docker-compose up command with the --scale option to scale up the services to the desired number of replicas.
  • Docker Compose will automatically update the services one by one, ensuring that the specified number of replicas is maintained throughout the update process.
  • Monitor the progress and status of the rolling update using the Docker Compose CLI or monitoring tools.


How do you implement service discovery and load balancing in Kubernetes?

In Kubernetes, service discovery and load balancing are implemented through the following mechanisms:

Services: Define a Kubernetes Service resource that represents a logical set of pods providing specific functionality. Services have stable IP addresses and are used to expose applications internally or externally. Kubernetes provides built-in load balancing for services, distributing incoming traffic to the backend pods.

DNS: Kubernetes automatically assigns a DNS name to each Service. Clients within the cluster can use the DNS name to discover and access services. DNS resolution can be performed by the Kubernetes DNS service or a custom DNS provider.

Ingress: Kubernetes Ingress resources provide external access to services, acting as an entry point to the cluster. Ingress controllers handle incoming traffic, perform load balancing, and route requests to the appropriate services based on rules defined in the Ingress resource.

Service mesh: Advanced service meshes like Istio or Linkerd can be deployed in Kubernetes to provide additional service discovery, load balancing, and traffic management capabilities including circuit-breaking, fault tolerance, and observability.


What is the purpose of the Docker plugin system?

The Docker plugin system allows for extending Docker's functionality by integrating third-party plugins. Plugins can provide additional capabilities such as storage drivers, network drivers, authorization and authentication mechanisms, volume drivers, and more.

The plugin system enables Docker to be highly extensible, allowing users to tailor Docker to their specific requirements or integrate it with existing infrastructure and tools. Plugins are developed using the Docker Plugin API and can be distributed and managed independently from the core Docker product.


How do you configure Docker to use a different storage driver?

To configure Docker to use a different storage driver, you can follow these general steps:

  • Stop the Docker daemon if it is running.
  • Update the Docker daemon's configuration file (/etc/docker/daemon.json) and specify the desired storage driver configuration.
  • Modify the storage-driver option in the configuration file to the desired storage driver name.
  • Start the Docker daemon. It will now use the specified storage driver.
  • Verify the new storage driver by checking the output of the docker info command and inspecting the storage driver details.


How do you implement canary deployments with Docker and Kubernetes?

Canary deployments with Docker and Kubernetes can be implemented by following these steps:

  • Set up a Kubernetes cluster and deploy your application using Docker containers.
  • Create a new deployment or service for the updated version of your application (the Canary version).
  • Configure the canary deployment to receive a small percentage of traffic while the majority of traffic is still routed to the stable version.
  • Monitor the canary deployment, collecting metrics and user feedback to assess its stability and performance.
  • If the canary deployment proves successful, gradually increase its traffic allocation.
  • If any issues arise, quickly roll back by reducing the canary's traffic allocation or rolling back the deployment.
  • Repeat the process, gradually increasing the canary's traffic allocation until it becomes the new stable version.


What are the differences between Docker Community Edition (CE) and Docker Enterprise Edition (EE)?

Docker Community Edition (CE) and Docker Enterprise Edition (EE) are two different editions of Docker with varying features and support levels:

Docker CE: Docker CE is a free and open-source edition of Docker, designed for developers and small teams. It provides the core Docker functionality including container runtime, image management, and basic orchestration features like Docker Compose and Docker Swarm mode.

Docker CE is community-supported and suitable for non-production environments and small-scale deployments.

Docker EE: Docker EE is a commercial offering targeted for enterprise use. It includes additional features like advanced container orchestration with Kubernetes, enhanced security capabilities, image scanning and vulnerability assessment, role-based access control (RBAC), and enterprise-grade support and services

Docker EE provides long-term support (LTS) releases and is recommended for production environments and large-scale deployments.


How do you configure Docker to use a private image registry?

These steps will enable you to configure Docker to use a private image registry:

  • Set up the private image registry using a tool like Docker Registry or a third-party solution.
  • Configure the registry to require authentication and authorization, ensuring only authorized users or systems can access it.
  • Authenticate Docker with the private registry by running the docker login command and providing the registry's address, username, and password or access token.
  • Pull Docker images from the private registry using the docker pull command and specify the image's name and registry information.
  • Push Docker images to the private registry using the docker push command and provide the image's name and registry information.
  • Verify the availability and accessibility of the private registry by performing pull and push operations.


What is the purpose of the "docker checkpoint" command?

The "docker checkpoint" command is used to checkpoint and restore running containers. It allows you to capture the state of a container at a specific point in time and save it as a checkpoint. Checkpoints include the container's memory, processes, and filesystem state.

Checkpoints can be used for various purposes such as migrating containers between hosts, pausing and resuming containers, and creating backups. The "docker checkpoint" command works in conjunction with the CRIU (Checkpoint/Restore in Userspace) tool which performs the actual checkpointing and restoration operations.


How do you configure Docker to use IPv6 networking?

To configure Docker to use IPv6 networking, you can follow these steps:

  • Stop the Docker daemon if it is running.
  • Update the Docker daemon's configuration file (/etc/docker/daemon.json) and add the "ipv6": true option.
  • Specify the IPv6 address range and prefix length in the configuration file.
  • Start the Docker daemon. It will now enable IPv6 networking.
  • Create or update Docker networks to use IPv6 by specifying the desired IPv6 subnet and gateway.
  • Configure containers to use IPv6 by specifying the desired IPv6 address or letting Docker assign it automatically.
  • Verify the IPv6 networking configuration by inspecting the container's network settings using the docker inspect command.


What is the role of containerd in the Docker ecosystem?

Containerd is a container runtime that is a core component of the Docker ecosystem. It provides the underlying runtime environment for executing containers and manages container lifecycle operations like creating, running, stopping, and deleting containers.

Containerd interfaces with the operating system's low-level container features, such as namespaces and control groups, to provide secure and isolated execution environments for containers.

Docker uses containerd as the default container runtime starting from Docker 20.10. It offers improved performance, stability, and extensibility compared to the previous runtime, "docker-runc".


How do you perform a live migration of Docker containers between hosts?

Live migration of Docker containers between hosts can be achieved by leveraging container orchestration platforms like Docker Swarm and Kubernetes. These platforms provide built-in features to facilitate container migration.

The steps to for live migration vary depending on the platform, but generally involve the following:

  • Ensure the source and destination hosts are part of the same cluster or federation.
  • Set up networking and storage configurations to enable container migration such as using shared storage or overlay networks.
  • Initiate the migration using the platform's CLI or API. Specify the container to be migrated and the target destination.
  • The orchestration platform coordinates the migration process. It ensures that the container's state, networking, and storage are transferred seamlessly to the destination host.
  • Monitor the migration progress and verify the container's functionality on the destination host.
  • Once the migration is complete, the container continues running on the destination host, and the resources on the source host are released.

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Wrapping up

From basic concepts to more complex ones like container orchestration and security, these top 100 Docker interview questions will come in very useful. Whether you're a Docker developer seeking an interview or a recruiter looking for Docker experts, refer to these questions and answers to stay prepared.

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