React custom hooks
For Developers

Custom React JS Hooks: What Are They and When to Use Them?

Why should you use custom React JS hooks in your code? 1. Cleaner code 2. Can be reused 3. Easy to maintain 4. Tons of custom hooks are already available online.

What is a custom hook? What are custom hooks in React? How do I make a custom hook in React JS? When would you use React custom hooks? Want to know everything about custom React JS hooks? Keep on reading.

Table of content:

  1. What are React custom hooks? How to make a custom hook in React JS? 
  2. What are the benefits of custom React hooks?
  3. How to create your first React custom hook?
  4. React custom hooks best practices
  5. Testing and Debugging Custom React.js Hooks
  6. Real-World Examples of Custom React.js Hooks
  7. Build React custom hooks examples
  8. Summary
  9. FAQs

What are React custom hooks? How to make a custom hook in React JS? 

React custom hooks are reusable functions that a React JS developer can use to add special and unique functionality to the React applications. Usually, if there is a requirement to add a feature, one can install a third-party library and solve the problem. But what if there is no such library with hooks that can be used? This problem is solved by using custom React JS hooks.

A custom hook is a special JavaScript function whose name starts with ‘use’ and can be used to call other hooks. Let’s take a look at some major differences between a custom React JS hook and React JS components:

  • A custom hook does not require a specific signature.
  • A software developer can choose what argument the custom hook has and what should the argument return.
  • A custom hook always starts with the name ‘use’.

Here’s an example of how using a Custom React JS hook can help you write clean code and reduce the rendering time:

What are the benefits of custom React hooks?

Custom React JS hooks offer three major benefits over standard library hooks: Reusability, readability, and testability.

  1. Reusability
    Custom React JS hooks offer reusability as when a custom hook is created, it can be reused easily, which ensures clean code and reduces the time to write the code. It also enhances the rendering speed of the code as a custom hook does not need to be rendered again and again while rendering the whole code.
  2. Readability
    Instead of using High-Order Components (HOCs), one can use custom hooks to improve the readability of the code. Complex codes can become hard to read if layers of providers surround the components, consumers, HOCs, render props, and other abstractions, generally known as wrapper hell.
    On the other hand, using custom React JS hooks can provide cleaner logic and a better way to understand the relationship between data and the component.
  3. Testability
    Generally, the test containers and the presentational components are tested separately in React. This is not a trouble when it comes to unit tests. But, if a container contains several HOCs, it becomes difficult as you will have to test the containers and the components together to do the integration tests.
    Using custom React JS hooks, this problem can be eliminated as the hooks allow you to combine containers and components into one component. It also makes it easier to write separate unit tests for custom hooks. Using custom hooks also makes it easier to mock hooks when compared to mock HOCs as it is similar to mocking a function.

How to create your first React custom hook?

How to create your first React custom hook

How to create your first React custom hook

Custom React.js Hooks allow you to encapsulate reusable logic and state it in a concise and modular way. It’s simple to make your own unique Hook by following a few fundamental guidelines. Let’s go over how to create your first unique React.js Hook step by step.

  • Identify the Logic to Extract: Start by identifying the logic that you want to extract into a custom Hook. It could be a piece of state management, a common API call, or any other reusable functionality. Extracting this logic into a custom Hook will help you reuse it across different components.
  • Create a New File: Create a new JavaScript file for your custom Hook. It’s a good practice to name the file using the convention use<HookName>.js to indicate that it’s a custom Hook.
  • Define the Hook Function: In the newly created file, define a function that represents your custom Hook. The function name should begin with “use” to follow the Hook naming convention. Inside this function, you can define the state variables, helper functions, or any other logic necessary for your custom Hook.
  • Define the Hook Signature: Decide what inputs your custom Hook requires and what outputs it should provide. Typically, you’ll define the dependencies required by your Hook as function arguments and return the necessary values as an array or an object. This allows components using your custom Hook to easily access the required data.
  • Implement the Hook Logic: Implement the core logic of your custom Hook inside the function body. This can include setting up event listeners, making API calls, or managing the state. You can also include any necessary cleanup logic using the useEffect Hook.
  • Export the Custom Hook: Finally, export your custom Hook function from the file so that it can be imported and used in other parts of your React.js application.

Once your custom Hook is created, you can import and use it in your components just like any other built-in Hook. This encapsulates the reusable logic within your custom Hook and promotes code reusability and maintainability.

React custom hooks best practices

React custom hooks best practices

React custom hooks best practices

When creating custom React.js Hooks, following best practices ensures that your Hooks are well-designed, maintainable, and reusable. Here are some essential React custom hooks best practices to keep in mind:

  • Naming Convention: It’s a good practice to prefix your custom Hooks with “use” to adhere to the naming convention established by React.js. This helps other developers understand that the function is a Hook and should be used accordingly.
  • Single Responsibility Principle: Aim to keep your custom Hooks focused on a single responsibility. This improves code readability, reusability, and maintainability. If a Hook becomes too complex or handles multiple concerns, consider refactoring it into smaller, more specialized Hooks.
  • Dependency Injection: Design your custom Hooks to be flexible and accept necessary dependencies as arguments. This allows components using the Hook to provide their specific dependencies, promoting reusability. Avoid hardcoding dependencies within your custom Hooks.
  • Documentation and Examples: Provide clear and comprehensive documentation for your custom Hooks. Explain their purpose, required inputs, return values, and any additional configuration options. Include examples and usage patterns to help developers understand how to use the Hook effectively.
  • Avoid Prop Drilling: Custom Hooks can help you avoid prop drilling, which occurs when you need to pass props through multiple intermediate components. By encapsulating common functionality within a custom Hook, you can provide the necessary values directly to the components that need them, simplifying your component hierarchy.
  • Testability: Ensure your custom Hooks are easily testable. Write unit tests that cover different use cases and edge cases for your Hooks. Use testing frameworks and libraries such as Jest and React Testing Library to create robust test suites for your custom Hooks.
  • Consistent Abstractions: Consider the abstractions and patterns used in your custom Hooks. Strive for consistency across your codebase to make it easier for developers to understand and use your Hooks. Stick to common patterns and naming conventions to enhance code readability.
  • Versioning and Documentation Updates: If you provide your unique Hooks as open-source libraries, abide by semantic versioning best practices and record any significant changes. Keep your documentation current and include detailed directions on how to upgrade to new Hook versions.

You can make sure that your unique Hooks are well-designed, reusable, and simple to comprehend by following these recommended practices. This encourages code maintainability and improves developer collaboration while working with the same source.

Remember to continuously improve and refine your custom Hooks based on feedback and real-world usage. Regularly review and update them to align with the evolving best practices and standards in the React.js community.

With these best practices in mind, you can create high-quality custom Hooks that enhance your React.js development experience and contribute to the overall success of your projects.

Testing and Debugging Custom React.js Hooks

When it comes to developing robust and reliable software, testing and debugging are crucial steps in the development process. The same holds true for custom React.js Hooks. In this section, we will explore the importance of testing custom Hooks and discuss various techniques and tools available for testing and debugging them.

Also, read: Eleven Great Websites to Test your Code Online 

Importance of Testing Custom Hooks:

Testing custom Hooks is essential to ensure their correctness and maintainability. By writing tests for your custom Hooks, you can verify that they work as expected, handle edge cases correctly, and don’t introduce any regressions. Furthermore, testing allows you to refactor your Hooks with confidence, knowing that existing functionality remains intact.

Testing Techniques for Custom Hooks:

Testing Techniques for Custom Hooks

Testing Techniques for Custom Hooks

Unit Testing: The most fundamental testing approach is unit testing, which involves testing each custom Hook in isolation. You can use testing frameworks like Jest along with utilities like React Testing Library or Enzyme to render components that utilize your Hooks and assert their behavior. Mocking dependencies or using test doubles can also be useful in isolating the Hook’s logic during testing.

Integration Testing: In addition to unit tests, it’s important to perform integration testing to verify that your custom Hooks work correctly within the context of your application. Integration tests involve testing multiple components together and ensuring that the Hooks interact seamlessly with other parts of your codebase.

Also, read: Unit Testing vs Integration Testing: 4 Key Differences Explained 

Mocking and Stubbing: When testing custom Hooks, you may encounter situations where you need to simulate certain behaviors or dependencies. Mocking libraries like Jest’s jest.mock() or Sinon.js can help you create mock versions of external APIs or modules, allowing you to control their behavior during testing. Stubbing can be useful for replacing certain functions or methods within the Hook to isolate specific behaviors.

Debugging Custom Hooks:

While testing helps identify issues in custom Hooks, debugging is an essential step in fixing those issues. Here are a few techniques for debugging custom Hooks effectively:

  • Logging: Adding console.log statements within your custom Hook can provide valuable insights into its internal state and the flow of data. You can log important variables, function calls, or conditional branches to track down the source of any unexpected behavior.
  • Chrome DevTools: The React DevTools extension for Chrome provides powerful debugging capabilities. You can inspect component hierarchies, monitor state changes, and examine the props passed to your custom Hooks. This allows you to understand how your Hook is being utilized and identify potential issues.
  • React Error Boundaries: If your custom Hook throws an error, you can use React’s Error Boundary feature to catch and handle those errors gracefully. This prevents the error from propagating and crashing your entire application, providing a better user experience.
  • Debugging Tools: Libraries like React Developer Tools or Redux DevTools can be invaluable for inspecting and debugging your custom Hooks. These tools offer advanced features such as time-travel debugging, state inspection, and performance profiling, enabling you to diagnose complex issues efficiently.

Remember to invest time in writing comprehensive tests and incorporating effective debugging techniques into your development workflow. This will save you time and effort in the long run, ensuring that your custom Hooks are reliable, maintainable, and free from bugs.

By thoroughly testing and diligently debugging your custom Hooks, you can have confidence in their functionality and robustness, leading to more stable and predictable React.js applications.

Real-World Examples of Custom React.js Hooks

Custom React.js Hooks have gained popularity in the React.js community due to their ability to encapsulate reusable logic and promote code reusability. In this section, we’ll explore real-world examples of custom Hooks, showcasing how they are utilized effectively in various applications and libraries.

  • Authentication Hooks: Authentication is a common requirement in web applications. Custom Hooks can simplify the implementation of authentication by encapsulating the authentication logic, token management, and user session handling. These Hooks provide a clean and reusable interface for handling authentication-related functionality across components.
  • Theme Switching Hooks: Many applications offer theme customization options to users. Custom Hooks can manage the theme state, apply theme changes, and persist the chosen theme in local storage. By encapsulating the theme-switching logic, Hooks make it easier to implement and reuse theme switching functionality across different parts of the application.
  • Data Fetching Hooks: Data fetching from APIs can be managed via custom hooks, which offer a neat and reusable solution to handle loading states, error handling, and data caching. Components may simply consume data without having to worry about implementation specifics thanks to these hooks, which abstract away the complexity of API calls.
  • Form Handling Hooks: Forms are a fundamental part of many web applications. Custom Hooks can handle form validation, state management, and form submission logic. By encapsulating the form-related functionality, Hooks enable developers to create reusable form components with consistent behavior across the application.
  • Animation Hooks: Animations and transitions can greatly enhance the user experience. Custom Hooks can encapsulate animation logic, providing an intuitive and reusable interface for creating complex animations. These Hooks can handle timing, easing functions, and triggering animations based on user interactions or component state changes.

Build React custom hooks examples

There are plenty of React custom hooks. Here are two popular React custom hooks examples with usage for you to understand them better.

Example 1: Build React custom hooks: useFetch

import { useState, useEffect } from 'react';

const useFetch = (url) => {
  const [data, setData] = useState(null);
  const [loading, setLoading] = useState(true);
  const [error, setError] = useState(null);

  useEffect(() => {
    const fetchData = async () => {
      try {
        const response = await fetch(url);
        const json = await response.json();
      } catch (error) {

  }, [url]);

  return { data, loading, error };

export default useFetch;

How to use useFetch React custom hook?

The useFetch React custom hook is a great way to fetch data from an API in a reusable way. It takes a URL as an argument and returns an object with the response data, loading state, and error state. This makes it easy to keep track of the state of the fetch request and display the data in your component.

import useFetch from './useFetch';

const MyComponent = () => {
  const { data, loading, error } = useFetch('');

  if (loading) {
    return <div>Loading...</div>;

  if (error) {
    return <div>Error: {error.message}</div>;

  return (
      {/* Display fetched data */}

Example 2: Build React custom hooks: useLocalStorage

import { useState } from 'react';

const useLocalStorage = (key, initialValue) => {
  const [value, setValue] = useState(() => {
    const storedValue = localStorage.getItem(key);
    return storedValue ? JSON.parse(storedValue) : initialValue;

  const updateValue = (newValue) => {
    localStorage.setItem(key, JSON.stringify(newValue));

  return [value, updateValue];

export default useLocalStorage;

How to use useLocalStorage React custom hook?

The useLocalStorage React custom hook is a great way to store data in local storage in a reusable way. It takes a key as an argument and returns an object with the current value of the key and a function to set the value of the key. This makes it easy to store and retrieve data from local storage in your components.

import useLocalStorage from './useLocalStorage';

const MyComponent = () => {
  const [count, setCount] = useLocalStorage('count', 0);

  const increment = () => {
    setCount(count + 1);

  return (
      <p>Count: {count}</p>
      <button onClick={increment}>Increment</button>


Custom React JS hooks can help developers save time, are reliable, reusable, and make the code clean. Creating custom React JS hooks is relatively easy, and you can search for many open sources where you can get some custom hooks from the library already created by developers. The benefits of custom React hooks include reusability, readability, and testability. 

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  1. How do you make a custom hook in React?

    A custom React JS hook is created by using the ‘use’ prefix. For example, a custom hook can be named ‘useLocalStorage’ or ‘useBoolean’. A custom hook will consist of one or more React JS hooks from the library. For more information on how to create a Custom hook, take a look at this video:

  2. When would you use React custom Hooks?

    If you have one or multiple React hooks that will be used at multiple locations in a code, you should use custom React JS hooks. This helps in making the code more readable and make the code clean.

  3. What is the difference between React Redux and Custom Hooks?

    React Redux is a state management library that offers a centralized store, actions, and reducers for managing global application state. It is commonly used in larger applications to handle complex state interactions. React Redux provides a way to connect React components to the Redux store, allowing components to access and update the shared state. It follows a more structured and explicit approach to state management.

    On the other hand, custom Hooks in React are a way to encapsulate reusable logic and state within functional components. Custom Hooks are typically used for local component state management and can handle specific functionality, such as form validation or API calls. They promote code reuse and simplify the logic within components. Custom Hooks offer a more lightweight and flexible approach to state management within individual components, without the need for a centralized store or complex reducers.

  4. What is HOC vs React custom Hooks?

    Higher-Order Components (HOCs) and React custom Hooks are two different patterns used in React for code reuse and logic sharing.

    HOCs are functions that take a component as input and return a new enhanced component with additional props or functionality. They enable cross-cutting concerns, such as authentication or data fetching, to be applied to multiple components. HOCs can introduce complexity with prop drilling and nesting.

    On the other hand, React custom Hooks are functions that encapsulate reusable logic within functional components. They allow stateful logic to be shared without the need for inheritance or prop drilling. Custom Hooks promote cleaner and more composable code, making it easier to share logic across different components. They provide a simpler and more direct approach to code reuse compared to HOCs.

  5. Why create custom Hooks in React?

    Creating custom Hooks in React allows developers to encapsulate and reuse logic within functional components. It promotes code reusability, readability, and maintainability by abstracting away complex logic into reusable units. Custom Hooks enable the sharing of stateful logic without the need for class components, inheritance, or prop drilling, resulting in cleaner and more modular code.

  6. What are the rules of React hooks?

    The three rules of React hooks are as follows: 
    • Hooks should only be called at the top level of a React functional component or within custom hooks, ensuring consistent and predictable execution. 
    • Hooks must be called exclusively from within React functions, such as functional components or custom hooks, maintaining the appropriate React context. 
    • When using the useEffect hook, it is crucial to provide a dependency list that specifies the variables the effect depends on. This enables React to re-run the effect when any of these dependencies change, avoiding unintended behavior. Adhering to these rules promotes clean and efficient code while leveraging the power of React hooks.

      Following these rules of React hooks will ensure that they are used correctly and consistently in your functional components.

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By May 26, 2023
Maximizing Business Value through Application Portfolio Rationalization
For Employers

Maximizing Business Value through Application Portfolio Rationalization

Benefits of application portfolio rationalization: 1. leads to cost savings 2. improves application performance 3. offers better visibility into application usage

In today’s fast-paced, technology-driven world, companies rely heavily on various applications to perform their daily operations. However, maintaining a large number of applications can be challenging and expensive, forcing companies to focus on maximizing their value proposition while minimizing costs. One way to achieve this is through application portfolio rationalization (APR), a process that focuses on assessing the existing portfolio of applications and strategizing how to best leverage the footprint of applications.

What is Application Portfolio Rationalization?

What is Application Portfolio Rationalization

What is Application Portfolio Rationalization

Application portfolio rationalization is the process of assessing an organization’s existing application portfolio and identifying redundant or outdated applications. This process helps identify applications that can be consolidated, retired, or replaced with more efficient solutions. The main goal of application portfolio rationalization is to optimize the application portfolio, leading to reduced costs and improved operational efficiency.

Benefits of Application Portfolio Rationalization

Benefits of Application Portfolio Rationalization

Benefits of Application Portfolio Rationalization

Application portfolio rationalization is more than just a buzzword—it’s a powerful strategy that can help organizations streamline their IT and significantly boost productivity. By combining cost optimization and performance enhancement, this strategy unlocks a world of opportunities for businesses to thrive.

Cost Optimization: Unleashing Financial Freedom

The magic of application portfolio rationalization truly begins when organizations grasp its potential for cost optimization. As the digital landscape expands and becomes more sophisticated, maintaining sprawling applications often becomes a financial drain. Instead of letting these redundant or antiquated applications sap your resources, application portfolio rationalization empowers your team to strategically purge unwarranted expenses.

By taking the axe to unnecessary applications, organizations can realize significant savings on maintenance and support costs. This fiscal freedom then allows more effective resource allocation, ultimately cutting down bloated IT expenditures and opening up new possibilities for growth and innovation.

Revolutionary Performance Improvements: Elevating Your IT Ecosystem

Another game-changing benefit of application portfolio rationalization is its ability to supercharge application performance. As technology evolves, managing an exceedingly complex web of applications becomes a daunting mission, often resulting in performance hiccups like sluggish response times or system crashes.

However, with an expertly rationalized application portfolio, your organization will be equipped to uncover and tackle underperforming applications at their roots. By zeroing in on the performance bottlenecks and implementing the right solutions, application portfolio rationalization translates into a faster, more efficient IT ecosystem that propels productivity to new heights.

In short, application portfolio rationalization redefines the way organizations optimize their IT—simultaneously streamlining costs and upping performance. Don’t let your organization be shackled by excessive applications; unlock the full potential of your IT with this transformative strategy.

Potential Pitfalls of Application Portfolio Rationalization

Potential Pitfalls of Application Portfolio Rationalization

Potential Pitfalls of Application Portfolio Rationalization

Application portfolio rationalization comes with a plethora of advantages, but it’s not without its share of challenges. Smart organizations will be ready to face these potential pitfalls head-on, ensuring that they reap only the rewards of a streamlined IT landscape.

Safeguarding Interconnected Business Processes

While reaping the benefits of application portfolio rationalization, organizations must tread cautiously to avoid disrupting critical business processes. Behind the curtain, applications often rely on each other to seamlessly perform an array of essential functions. Eliminating an application without thorough planning or testing can wreak havoc on vital processes and lead to costly downtime and missed revenue opportunities.

To circumnavigate this pitfall, organizations must establish a well-defined process for evaluating and rationalizing applications, effectively minimizing the risk of disruption and safeguarding interdependent operations.

Assessing Application Value: When Every Decision Counts

Another hurdle in application portfolio rationalization is the challenge of valuing each application’s contribution to the business. While some applications may be fundamental to a particular function, their true worth might not be immediately obvious. This creates a conundrum as organizations try to decide whether to retain, replace, or remove these applications.

The solution? A comprehensive analysis of each application’s value to the organization. With actionable data in hand, organizations can confidently make well-informed decisions that positively impact their IT infrastructure and bottom line.

That said, although application portfolio rationalization comes with its fair share of obstacles, a forward-thinking organization with the right strategies in place doesn’t need to break a sweat. Arm your team with proper planning and assessment tools to overcome these challenges and harness the full potential of rationalized IT.

How Application Portfolio Rationalization Maximizes Business Value

Despite these potential pitfalls, application portfolio rationalization can help organizations maximize business value. One way this is achieved is by improving alignment between IT and business objectives. Often, IT departments are tasked with maintaining and supporting applications, while the business has its own set of objectives. Application portfolio rationalization provides a framework for aligning IT and business objectives to ensure that the application portfolio supports the organization’s overall goals.

Another way that application portfolio rationalization can help maximize business value is through better visibility into application usage and performance. By analyzing application usage and performance metrics, organizations can gain a better understanding of how their applications are being used and identify areas for improvement. This can lead to more informed decision-making when it comes to rationalizing the application portfolio.


In summary, application portfolio rationalization is a process that can help organizations maximize business value by optimizing their application portfolio. It can lead to cost savings, improved application performance, better alignment between IT and business objectives, and better visibility into application usage and performance. However, be aware of the potential pitfalls, such as the risk of disrupting critical business processes and the difficulty of identifying the value of each application. With careful planning and execution, application portfolio rationalization can help organizations achieve their business goals and stay competitive in today’s ever-changing business landscape.

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By May 22, 2023
Sales Development Representative Day in Life
For Developers

Welcome to a day in the life of Vadin*, an SDR (Sales Development Representative) at Turing! 

Vadin is an SDR at Turing. In this post, he talks about his schedule and gives a perfect glimpse into a typical SDR day. Let’s see how Vadin describes his day.

Vadin’s job is to connect with new clients to help them discover the benefits of collaborating with Turing. 

Turing’s fully remote flexibility and comprehensive data analytics make the job as simple as can be. 

Vadin is based in India but works in the U.S. market, so his work hours overlap with his neighbors’ bedtime. But that doesn’t mean he misses out on life. In fact, he is currently enrolled in a master’s business program, watches football, and spends ample time with family and friends. 

Listening to Vadin talk about his schedule gives a perfect glimpse into a typical SDR day. Even with his working hours aligned with the United States, Vadin takes full advantage of his daytime hours! It’s hard to not be envious when going through his schedule. 

Let’s see how Vadin describes his day:


10:30 AM IST (10 PM PST) – Alarm buzzes. Ah, time to wake up and smell the chai. I can’t start my day without a cup of chai and some breakfast. My family is awake, and I spend the late morning chatting with them. 

11:30 AM IST (11 PM PST) – Start studying for my master’s program. Continuing education is very important to me, and I’m grateful my schedule allows for 2–3 hours of daytime to focus on my studies. 

2:30 PM IST (2 AM PST) – Time for lunch. I’m a firm believer in the power of lunchtime. I take a break to eat some delicious food and catch up with whoever’s around. Sometimes I’ll go out to lunch with friends to share stories about our weekends and have a good laugh to energize my midday—perfect timing to beat the restaurant lunch rush! I also like to go for a walk outside to clear my mind and prepare for the second half of my day.

4:00 PM IST (3:30 AM PST) – Reconnect with family, watch football, run errands, or whatever else needs to be done that day. 

8:00 PM IST (7:30 AM PST) – Around this time I start preparing for my work. I sign on to check in with my manager, read any emails, prioritize action items, and do some client prospecting. I’m currently on an account-based campaign, so research is a big part of my role. Others are on different campaigns where client leads are given by the operations team. That role involves a lot more cold-calling, so our schedules can vary a bit. 

8:30 PM IST (8:00 AM PST) – Once I’m caught up, I join the daily sync-up meeting where we discuss the strategy on how to reach a prospect, share any blockers with managers, and brainstorm solutions. Our stand-up meeting is one of the best parts of working at Turing, as I can even listen to my call recordings with managers to learn from my mistakes and improve for the next call. My direct manager Arun is very good about giving polite feedback in the meeting, while more personal or stringent feedback is reserved for one-on-ones. 

9:30 PM IST (9 AM PST) – Dinner time! Here I break for 15–20 minutes to have dinner with my family and re-fuel for the work ahead. I wish them all sweet dreams, and then it’s back to work!

10 PM IST (9:30 AM PST) – After dinner, it’s time to put on my detective hat and start researching potential clients. I comb through LinkedIn and other platforms to find more companies that might be interested in our services and ensure the ones I was assigned had decision-making power. Then I dive into making connections. I spend about 2 hours researching prospects and reaching out in creative ways to make first impressions. 

12 AM IST (11:30 AM PST) – Break time. As an SDR, collaboration is crucial, and I like to keep a good relationship with my team members. I discuss progress with the team and learn about their experience with their prospects—we even practice our pitches on each other. I also like to stretch at this time and maybe grab a snack. It’s important to stay active and vibrant through the night! 

12:30 AM IST (12 PM PST) – It’s noon on the U.S. Pacific Coast—the best time for cold-calling. I’ve found that people are much friendlier and more likely to answer after morning meetings and lunchtime. I spend about 3 hours calling and try to make 40–60 calls a day. For other campaigns, calling time might be higher and targets increased to 100–120 calls a day. 

I use various sales and marketing techniques to grab the attention of prospects and start the conversation. My main goal is to identify a prospect’s needs and pain points and see if Turing’s services can solve their problems.

I also like to throw in some jokes and puns in my messages to make them stand out.

3:30 AM IST (3 PM PST) – As the day nears the end, I spend time updating the CRM and other sales tools. I review my progress for the day, prepare reports, and identify goals for the next day.

4 AM IST (3:30 PM PST) – Once the day is over, it’s time to sign off and unwind. I get myself ready for bed and spend some quiet time reading or meditating to slow down my brain from an active day at work. As long as I’m asleep before the sun comes up around 6 AM, I’m good for a full 6–8 hours of regenerative rest. 


All in all, a day in the life of an SDR at Turing is never dull. It takes persistence, patience, and efficiency to identify and qualify potential leads for the company, but Vadin loves the challenge of converting new clients and making connections, even if he doesn’t work a typical 9-5. And the fact that he can ask for different campaigns and rearrange his schedule the way it works best for him allows him to discover the most productive practices.

Vadin says he has complete autonomy in his work, be it making changes in the templates or requesting a new CRM tool with better features. He feels his voice is always heard and appropriate measures are taken to remove any blockers. He enjoys his work and feels like a valuable part of the sales process. With dedication, hard work, and the right attitude, Vadin and other SDRs are making significant contributions to Turing’s success.

So here’s to you, Vadin—keep on slaying those sales!

*Names have been changed to maintain privacy.

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By May 16, 2023
Building New AI Solutions for Intelligent Enterprises and Developers
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AI transformation is digital transformation. The current speed of AI innovation presents a turning point for companies and developers alike. Future success now hinges on new opportunities to galvanize businesses and engineers through shared AI tools and knowledge.

At Turing, where AI and machine learning are at the core of our company’s DNA, we’ve been hard at work developing new initiatives to support intelligent businesses and developers in this new era. Anyone can sign up for the latest updates as we launch these new initiatives later this year.

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Tech Talk Series - How to Code with an AI Copilot (1)

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By May 12, 2023
Expert Opinions A Discussion on the Open Letter by the Future of Life Institute
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Expert Opinions: A Discussion on the Open Letter by the Future of Life Institute

Turing conducted a webinar on the open letter by the Future of Life Institute written to the UN by GenAI scientists that raised concerns about the risks of GenAI

On April 13, 2023, Turing conducted a LIVE webinar titled “Building Responsible AI: The Human Way.” The moderator for the event was Sandip Parekh, VP of Turing, and the panelists were:

  • Paula Griffin, Director of Product, Turing
  • Kai Du, Director of Engineering, Turing
  • Srinath Sridhar, CEO & Co-founder,
  • Susannah Shattuck, Head of Product,

The webinar kicked off with a discussion on the topic of the recent open letter written to the United Nations by a group of GenAI (Generative AI) scientists that raised concerns about the risks and implications of GenAI. 


The letter, which was signed by 50 GenAI scientists, outlined the risks of creating superintelligent AI, which could potentially pose an existential threat to humanity. The letter raised concerns about the possibility of AI systems being used for malicious purposes, including cyber warfare, financial manipulation, and social engineering. The panelists discussed the contents of the letter and shared their opinions on the potential consequences of creating self-improving artificial intelligence that could surpass human intelligence. The panelists’ opinions were insightful, and it was exciting to hear from experts in the AI industry.

Panelist Pointers

  • Srinath Sridhar, the first to speak, pointed out that Regie takes ethics and bias very seriously in all its developments. He disagreed with the notion that artificial general intelligence (AGI) is close, stating that it’s at least years away if not decades. Therefore, a six-month moratorium on AI development would not make a significant difference. He also argued that there is no containment issue with AI development as there is with nuclear or biological research, as it is unlikely that AI will get out of the labs and take a life of its own to kill humanity. Srinath suggested that regulation on the product side, like FCC or FDA regulation, is more effective than regulation on research.

  • Paula Griffin added that the letter was interesting because even though technological advances always seem to come out of nowhere, they are often a natural progression for people who have been working in the field. She compared the introduction of BERT embeddings in 2018 to the current situation with AGI, stating that this is not a sudden breakthrough, but a natural evolution. Paula also noted that a six-month pause would not make much of a difference, as AI development will continue to advance regardless.

  • Susannah Shattuck, at this point, stepped in to agree with the other panelists that a six-month pause is not the solution. She pointed out that the letter is not just about the six-month pause—there were feasible suggestions for establishing safety and guardrails around the development of AI systems. She suggested pushing companies to make it detectable when an output is being used that was generated by a generative AI system or a large multimodal model, such as using watermarks. She emphasized that AI development should be done transparently, responsibly, and ethically. Susannah suggested that we focus on building trust in AI systems by making them transparent and accountable.

  • Kai Du acknowledged that implementing a grace period of six months where no action is taken may not be feasible, but it can draw attention from the government and prompt policy changes to prepare for future challenges. Kai expressed that Sandip made a good point about this news being dated, as Databricks has already released model Dolly since the letter was made public. Kai pointed out that we may see a lot of exciting progress in the coming weeks and concluded that it’s challenging to pause everything given the rapid pace of development in the field.

Webinar Audience Poll Results

Of a live audience of 75+ participants, Sandip noted that almost 60% answered YES to the poll question: “Do you think there should be a pause on the training of AI systems more powerful than GPT-4 for at least 6 months, as suggested in the statement?”

Sandip then went on to detail how there are some very interesting viewpoints being taken by people on both sides of the conversation.


It’s clear that the open letter has sparked a lot of conversation in the tech industry, and it is crucial to have these discussions about responsible AI development. The opinions expressed by the panelists suggest that a six-month pause on AI development is not a viable solution to ensure the responsible development of AI systems. Instead, the focus should be on building transparent, responsible, and ethical AI systems that are trustworthy. The panelists emphasized the importance of regulatory frameworks that ensure the safe and ethical development of AI. Overall, the discussion provided valuable insights into the future of AI development and the need to build responsible AI.

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Click here to gain access to the full 60-minute discussion.

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By May 9, 2023
Building Responsible AI - The Human Way (2)
For Employers

Building Responsible AI – The Human Way

Turing hosted a live webinar focused on helping the audience navigate common pitfalls and build responsible AI with accountability. Here are the key takeaways

Webinar Summary

Event Date: April 13, 2023; 3 pm EST

Introduction to the Event

The nuances of human language and the subjective nature of words such as positive, negative, good, bad, right, and wrong make the meaning of words subjective. This poses a challenge in creating ethical AI systems, as AI models learn from human data and can inherit biases and prejudices that exist in society. Therefore, it is vital to develop ethical AI systems that take into account the diversity of human experience and ensure that AI does not perpetuate or amplify existing inequalities. To achieve this, transparency, accountability, and inclusivity must be prioritized.

On April 13, 2023, at 3 pm EST, Turing hosted a live webinar focused on helping the audience navigate common pitfalls and build AI responsibly with accountability. The event attracted more than 65 professionals from major enterprises who joined us live to step into the ethical side of futuristic AI that is inclusive, unbiased, responsible, accountable, and human-centered. Turing’s webinar featured five leading industry experts from the world of AI who discussed their experience building successful AI products and the important global factors that will impact the future of ethical AI.

Meet the Speakers

The five industry experts who spoke at the webinar are as follows:

  • Kai Du, Director of Engineering, Turing, formerly a Facebook software engineer
  • Paula Griffin, Director of Product, Turing, formerly a Quora PM with extensive experience in product management and data science
  • Srinath Sridhar, CEO & Co-founder,, formerly one of Facebook’s first 100 engineers, using AI to transform content creation for businesses
  • Susannah Shattuck, Head of Product,, formerly from IBM Watson and Google X, using her deep expertise to help organizations design, develop, and deploy ethical AI at scale
  • Sandip Parekh, Vice President, Turing, an experienced transformation leader with broad experience in delivering SI programs, solution consulting, business development, and strong customer relationship management, acted as the moderator for the event

Event Summary

The event began with the panelists discussing the recent letter by the Future of Life Institute calling for a six-month moratorium on AI development. The panelists agreed that the pause is not an effective approach, with Srinath specifically explaining that there are several problems with the letter, including the fact that there is no containment timeline for the research. Susannah accurately pointed out the useful components of the letter, though in her opinion it’s wrongly headlined as a “six-month pause.”

Sandip then introduced the panelists and himself and pressed on with the webinar’s first question, which addressed the ROI on AI products and the essential considerations of building responsibly for companies looking to sell AI products. Sandip and Susannah discussed the ethical implications of using AI and how to maximize the use of best practices for business outcomes. Susannah recommended that companies focus on responsible AI development if they want to sell AI products to customers concerned about the risks associated with them.

Moving on to the next open question, Susannah brought up the need for multiple and varied stakeholders who need to be included in the design phase early on. Srinath discussed how was built with a holistic approach early on and threw light on seven categories that were given special focus to ensure that bias was kept at bay. He also mentioned some of the 50 different use cases and categories that were treated sensitively.

In the following segment, the panelists delved into the topic of human control, with Paula taking the lead in explaining the various forms it can take. Through her adept facilitation, the audience recognized the irony that biases are, in fact, introduced through human training. Paula delved into the different types of human control that can be applied to various categories and dispelled common myths held by model builders, highlighting the importance of a moderation team in ensuring ethical and fair outcomes.

Kai then explained how the Turing Talent Cloud, a platform that connects companies with top AI talent, is designed to help companies build responsible AI. He emphasized the importance of finding talent with a diverse range of backgrounds and experiences to ensure that AI systems are inclusive and representative of different perspectives.

As the webinar moved into the Q&A section, Sandip and Srinath addressed concerns around the use of AI in autonomous weapons systems. They noted that although there are potential benefits to using AI in military operations, there are also significant risks and ethical concerns that need to be carefully considered.

The panelists also discussed the importance of data privacy and retention policies for AI systems. Susannah noted the growing need for more transparency around what data is used to train AI systems and that governments are starting to regulate what data can and cannot be used.

The webinar concluded with the announcement of giveaway winners and an invitation to reach out to Turing for a tailored assessment to kickstart the Imagine phase of the IDR framework for AI services. The IDR framework (Imagine, Deliver, Run) is backed by more than 3M cumulative hours of services project experience and supported by 50K immediately available, deeply vetted, and AI-matched developers from the Talent Cloud. (Please contact for more details)


The development of ethical and responsible AI systems is essential to ensure that AI does not perpetuate or amplify existing inequalities. The panelists at the Turing webinar provided valuable insights and best practices for building responsible AI, including prioritizing transparency, accountability, and inclusivity; involving diverse stakeholders early in the design phase; and ensuring human control over AI systems. The use of the IDR framework and platforms like Turing Talent Cloud can also help companies build responsible AI and find top AI talent with diverse backgrounds and experiences. It is important that we continue to have discussions and take action to promote ethical and responsible AI development that benefits society as a whole.

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By May 9, 2023
5 Key Considerations for Building an AI Implementation Strategy
For Employers

5 Key Considerations for Building an AI Implementation Strategy

AI implementation strategy building tips: 1. Define the problem the AI will solve 2. Ensure the data you feed the AI is of good quality 3. Choose the right AI

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been widely adopted across industries to improve efficiency, accuracy, and decision-making capabilities. As the AI market continues to evolve, organizations are becoming more skilled in implementing AI in businesses and day-to-day operations. This has led to an increase in full-scale deployment of various AI technologies, with high-performing organizations reporting remarkable outcomes. These outcomes go beyond cost reduction and include significant revenue generation, new market entries, and product innovation. However, implementing AI is not an easy task, and organizations must have a well-defined strategy to ensure success. In this article, we will discuss the five key considerations for building an AI implementation strategy.

Five key considerations for building an AI implementation strategy (1)

Five key considerations for building an AI implementation strategy (1)

  1. Problem definition

    Defining the problem that the AI system will solve is crucial. It is essential to identify the business objective and the specific task that the AI system will perform. Organizations must also decide on the metrics used to evaluate the performance of the AI system before jumping into the actual implementation of AI. For instance, if an organization is building an AI system to classify images of animals, it must define the types of animals it wants to classify, the accuracy rate it wants to achieve, and the evaluation metrics it will use, such as precision, recall, and F1 score. Identifying or establishing baselines and benchmarks is also key to evaluating the effectiveness of AI solutions.
  2. Data quality

    The foundation of any AI system is only as good as the data it is trained on. The data is just as important as the AI technology itself because AI builds upon the data. If data is not correct, precise, or relevant, then the AI will make decisions that may not be accurate. Data must be accurate, relevant, and consistent to produce reliable results. Before diving headfirst into creating an AI model, organizations must assess their data quality and take steps to improve it if necessary. Data cleaning and preprocessing techniques can be applied to eliminate errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records. Additionally, organizations must ensure that their data is representative of the real-world scenario they are trying to model. For instance, if an organization is implementing AI in business to predict customer churn, it must have data that represents different types of customers and their behavior. In some cases, there is not enough data to train an AI model, forcing businesses to generate synthetic data sources.
  3. Model selection

    Choosing the right model that best fits the project requirement is one of the most crucial factors that an organization, no matter what size, must consider when creating an AI implementation strategy. Different AI models have different strengths and weaknesses, and organizations must choose the one that best fits their requirements. There are several factors to consider when selecting an AI model, such as the type of data, the complexity of the problem, the availability of labeled data, and the computational resources required. For instance, if an organization has a large dataset and wants to classify text, it can consider using a large language model to create vector representations of the text and feed them to smaller classifier models like random forests, support vector machines, or small neural networks.
  4. Integration with existing systems

    Another, often neglected factor in building an effective AI implementation strategy is integrating an AI system with existing systems. This is a complex process that requires careful planning, no doubt. The AI system needs to be consistently integrated into the broader system, meaning the predictions should be used in the right place with confidence. Additionally, organizations must consider the impact of the AI system on the workflows and processes already in place—it must be integrated in a way that minimizes disruption and enhances productivity. For instance, if an organization is implementing an AI system to automate customer service, it must ensure that the system integrates with the existing customer service platform and that the customer service representatives are trained to use the system. This will improve productivity and significantly help manage the overall cost of implementing artificial intelligence. Additionally, it will help minimize external upkeep and expenses that could otherwise be used for the improvement of existing systems.
  5. Ethical considerations

    It’s finally time to discuss the elephant in the room: the concept of handing over crucial factors to super-intelligent machines can make people uneasy. Organizations must consider the ethical implications of implementing AI in business and ensure that the system is fair, transparent, and unbiased. Additionally, organizations must consider the potential impact of the AI system on society and the environment. For instance, if an organization is building an AI system to make hiring decisions, it must ensure that the system is not biased against certain groups of people and that the decisions are transparent.

Now you’re ready to create your own AI implementation strategy. What’s next?

Implementing AI is a complex process that requires careful planning and consideration. Organizations must ensure that their data is of high quality, define the problem they want to solve, select the right AI model, integrate the system with existing systems, and consider ethical implications. By considering these key factors, organizations can build a successful AI implementation strategy and reap the benefits of AI. 

That said, the implementation of AI in business can be a daunting task when done alone and without proper guidance. However, there’s a simple solution. Implementing AI in business can be simplified by partnering with a well-established, capable, and experienced partner like Turing.

Turing’s business is built by successfully deploying AI technologies into its platform. We have deployed search and recommendation algorithms at scale, large language model (LLM) systems, and natural language processing (NLP) technologies. This has enabled rapid scaling of the business and value creation for customers. We have leveraged this experience to help clients convert their data into business value across various industries and functional domains by deploying AI technologies around NLP, computer vision, and text processing. Our clients have realized the significant value in their supply chain management (SCM), pricing, product bundling, and development, personalization, and recommendations, among many others.

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Discover TuringGPT, the innovative chat app by Turing. Enjoy free access* to the most advanced generative pre-train transformer (GPT) in the world. Boost your creativity, productivity, and efficiency with our user-friendly interface and extensive library of prompt templates.

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By May 8, 2023
Svelte vs React Which JavaScript Framework Is Better
For Developers

Svelte vs React: Which JavaScript Framework Is Better?

Svelte vs React: Svelte is a front-end JavaScript compiler, simple and easy to use. React is a front-end JavaScript library that uses 3rd-party components.

Svelte vs React: What is Svelte used for? Is Svelte better than React? Why is Svelte so good? What makes Svelte different? Find answers to these questions, and more information, in the article below.

Svelte is a free and open-source front-end compiler based on JavaScript language. React is a front-end JavaScript library that uses multiple third-party components to design UI elements. The article explains the differences between Svelte vs React in detail. 

Developers use JavaScript frameworks like Svelte and React to create, design, and code functional websites. Knowing the difference between Svelte and React would help web developers decide which frameworks to choose.

Table of Contents

Svelte vs React: What is Svelte?

Developed by Rich Harris in 2016, Svelte is a free, open-source front-end compiler. Svelte compiles HTML templates to create unique code that manipulates the Document Object Model directly. Unlike traditional JavaScript frameworks like React, Svelte avoids overheads associated with the virtual DOM. 

The way Svelte operates reduces the transferred file size and offers better client performance. The compiler processes the application code inserts calls to automatically update the data, and re-renders UI elements affected by that data. Svelte is written in the TypeScript language, a superset of JavaScript. 

When should you use Svelte?

Svelte is known for simplicity, as its code closely resembles Vanilla JavaScript. Svelte allows developers to complete their objectives with fewer lines of code. Developers should use Svelte if they are targeting a very small package size for their website.

Programs written in Svelte are useful for application in low-capacity or low-power devices. Svelte tools and frameworks provide enhanced control over state management, routing, and building customized infrastructure. Svelte is useful for DOM manipulation, reactive frameworks, and emerging markets. 

Which companies use Svelte?

Major companies such as Yahoo, Rakuten, Bloomberg, Meta, Apple, The New York Times, Square, ByteDance, Spotify, Reuters, Ikea, Brave, and others rely on Svelte for their websites. Companies prefer Svelte because it converts the application’s code to ideal JavaScript while coding. Thus, framework abstractions do not hamper the performance of apps written in Svelte.

Svelte vs React: What is React?

Developers use React as a front-end JavaScript library to build user interfaces. The Meta (Facebook) maintains the UI components, and a community of developers and organizations work together to release improved versions. React is used as a base for developing websites, mobile applications, and server-rendered apps. 

React is useful for state management and for rendering that state onto the DOM. The development of React applications requires the usage of additional libraries. The knowledge of routing, client-side coding, and design patterns is a prerequisite for developing React components.

Also, read: Top 25 ReactJS Questions and Answers for 2023

When should you use React?

React is a flexible component library that is perfect for state management. Thus, websites and apps that use React components can exchange data without reloading the page. React should be used for user interfaces that require a lot of user interaction. 

React corresponds to ‘view’ in the model-view-controller. Thus, managing lower-level algorithms with React is easy, and coding is required only for the interface’s view model. React’s Virtual DOM improves website performance and reduces lags to enhance loading times. 

Which companies use React?

Highly successful organizations like Meta, Instagram, Salesforce, Shopify, Discord, Skype, and Pinterest use React to develop user interfaces. Due to the availability of a large number of developers globally, companies prefer React to create the front-end part of their websites. 

React is fast, easy to implement, and scalable, making it a popular choice among developers and organizations. 

Also, read: Why You Should Use ReactJS for Your Projects.

Svelte vs. React: Which is better? 

React and Svelte are both popular choices for building modern web applications. While they have similarities, they differ in key areas such as learning curve, performance, bundle size, state management, tooling and ecosystem, developer experience, and debugging

Developers may choose one of these frameworks over the other based on multiple factors and preferences. Let us compare their differences to help you choose the right JavaScript framework for your projects.

Difference between Svelte and React

Difference between Svelte and React

Learning curve

Let’s start with the Svelte vs React syntax differences first. React has a steep learning curve, especially for developers who are new to the world of front-end development. It requires a good understanding of JavaScript and the ability to work with complex state management. However, once developers are familiar with React, they can build complex UIs quickly and efficiently.

Svelte, on the other hand, has a relatively low learning curve. Its template language is easy to learn, and developers can quickly get up to speed with the framework. Svelte also has a small API surface, which means that there are fewer concepts to learn.


Traditional Document Object Model (DOM) triggers an update with each code change, which slows down the app’s performance. Virtual DOM speeds up the process by acting as temporary memory storage for changes made to the user interface. A process known as diffusion or reconciliation delays updates until updating and rendering can be carried out effectively.

React uses Virtual DOM to break down the app’s code when the code is executed. VDOM helps React perform faster than traditional JavaScript languages. But Svelte takes performance a bit further by ignoring the VDOM diffing process.

Svelte acts as a compiler that carries out DOM rendering through reactive programming. Whenever an assignment triggers a change in the component stage, the DOM is updated. Thus, as a serverless-first framework, Svelte is considered more reactive than React.

Bundle Size

Svelte’s .gzip version has a size of 1.6 kilobytes. On the other hand, React.gzip, when combined with ReactDOM, comes to a total size of 42.2 kilobytes. Svelte’s smaller bundle size ensures better loading speeds, better responsiveness, and reduced bandwidth costs. 

State management

The next point of comparison in the React vs Svelte battle is state management. React’s state management is based on a unidirectional data flow, where the state is passed down from parent components to child components. Now this approach can lead to complex code, especially when dealing with large and complex applications.

Svelte, on the other hand, uses a reactive approach to state management. This approach means that the UI automatically updates when the data changes, which makes it easier to manage the state of the application.


Code written in React can be tested with ‘end-to-end’ tests. React code of an application is tested in a realistic browser environment. This reduces your app’s time to market (TTM) and boosts its value. 

Svelte offers its testing library for unit testing. The Svelte testing library is smaller in size than React and offers simple computations. Thus, Svelte can help developers maintain clean, functional, and compressed code.

Also, read: 10 Popular Software Testing Trends in 2023

Tooling and ecosystem

Tooling and ecosystem are important factors to consider in the Svelte vs React battle. React has a large ecosystem of third-party tools and libraries, while Svelte’s ecosystem is still growing. However, Svelte’s small API surface and efficient compiler make it easier to use without the need for additional tools and libraries.

Developer experience

As you know, developer experience is important for productivity and maintaining code quality. React’s component-based architecture makes it easy to reuse code and build complex UIs quickly. Svelte’s template language and reactive programming approach make it easy to build UIs quickly and efficiently.

Community Support

React has a huge community of developers, as it is one of the most widely used JavaScript platforms in the world. The community of React developers creates tutorials, guides, updates, components, and more to maintain the usability of the JavaScript library.

The fact that a large-scale organization like Meta (Facebook) maintains React keeps React developers in high demand. 

Related Post: How to Hire React JS Developers?

Svelte is rather uncommon, but developers report high levels of satisfaction while using Svelte. The enterprise-level support for Svelte is fairly new, as Sveltekit 1.0 is yet to be released. The Svelte community is small, with only 11k developers, compared to more than 287k active React developers.


Another important point when looking at the Svelte vs React battle is debugging. React’s debugging tools are well-developed and widely used by the community. 

Svelte’s debugging tools are less developed than React’s. However, this doesn’t mean that they are any less effective. Svelte’s compiler generates highly optimized code, which can make debugging more challenging. However, Svelte’s small API surface makes it easier to debug applications.


When it comes to maintenance, React wins over Svelte because it is maintained by Meta and a team of individual developers and companies. As a result, React has a dedicated team that works on the framework 24/7. But that’s not it! In the past few years, React saw quite a few big releases like functional components React Context, Hooks, etc., making it a favorite among many developers. 

But Svelte is no less. Svelte has an amazing maintenance team that works to keep the framework at the top of its game and in contention with React.

To conclude: when should you use Svelte and when should you use React?

When should you use Svelte and when should you use React

When should you use Svelte and when should you use React

Svelte and React have their own advantages and disadvantages. React is backed by Meta and hence quite reliable. Also, it’s a good choice for big projects that demand several features. React is also suitable for making complex user interfaces as it’s easy to create reusable components with the framework. Last but not least, React has a range of built-in features and tools. So if you need to develop large applications quickly, choose React. 

Svelte, on the other hand, is more suited for smaller projects that don’t demand a lot of features. Most importantly, Svelte is lightweight and uses less code. These features make it a wonderful option for projects with a focus on performance. What’s more, Svelte has a simpler learning curve, making it a good option for developers who are not too experienced with JavaScript. Furthermore, Svelte is perfect for building dynamic user interfaces as it compiles code into highly optimized JavaScript.

React vs Svelte: Who wins?

Consider your project requirements and the time you have first. The Svelte vs. React argument is straightforward when these two aspects are clearly defined. Use Svelte if performance and optimized code are your priorities. You can also go for Svelte for your projects to achieve a smaller bundle size, maintainable code, and exceptional performance without the VDOM. Due to the simplicity of the framework, Svelte enables developers to prepare a website faster. 

But if you need to build heavy, complex applications quickly, go for React. React makes it easy to maintain the stability of your application. An active community of React developers helps resolve doubts and bugs observed during development. 

If you’re an employer, using React for your projects will make it easier to hire software developers. Developing stable software products using React and Svelte requires companies to hire experienced software developers. Turing can help you hire brilliant, pre-vetted remote software developers for your projects at unbelievable prices. Visit the Hire page for more information.

If you’re a software developer looking for remote Svelte jobs or remote React jobs, try Turing. Work with top US companies and earn higher than your peers. Visit the Apply for Jobs page now. 


Is Svelte better than React?

Yes, Svelte is a better option for you if you’re working on smaller projects that don’t demand a lot of features. As Svelte is lightweight and uses less code, it’s a wonderful option for projects with a focus on performance. Svelte has a simpler learning curve, making it a great option for developers who are not too experienced with JavaScript. Furthermore, Svelte is perfect for building dynamic user interfaces as it compiles code into highly optimized JavaScript.

What is better Svelte or React in 2023?

React and Svelte are excellent choices if you’re looking to build user interfaces. While React is great for building larger applications efficiently, Svelte is better suited for smaller applications demanding high performance.

Should I switch from React to Svelte?

If your priority is performance and optimized code, then go for Svelte. But if you’re looking to build large and complex applications quickly, then React may be the better option. In addition, if you want to build dynamic user interfaces, then Svelte is the better choice.

Is Svelte smaller than React?

Yes, Svelte is smaller than React in terms of bundle size because Svelte compiles your code at build time, resulting in smaller and more efficient code. On the other hand, React uses a larger runtime library to manage the component state and update the DOM. However, the actual size difference will depend on the specific project and its dependencies.

Is Svelte worth learning?

Yes, Svelte is definitely worth learning in 2023 as it is a popular JavaScript framework used for building user interfaces in web applications. Its fast performance, small size, and easy-to-learn syntax make it an attractive option for developers. Additionally, Svelte’s growing popularity suggests that it will continue to be relevant in the web development industry.

Svelte is a better choice for small to medium-sized projects with simpler components, where fast performance and a small codebase are essential. 

React is more suitable for large-scale projects with complex components and state management requirements, where a larger ecosystem of tools and libraries is needed. 


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By , May 5, 2023
7 Best Java IDEs and Editors in 2023
For Developers

10 Best Java IDEs and Editors in 2023

10 best Java IDEs for coding in 2023: 1. Eclipse 2. NetBeans 3. BlueJ 4. JDevelopers 5. IntelliJ Idea 6. JCreator 7. DrJava

What is the Best Java IDE for Beginners? What is the Best Free Java IDE? Which IDE is best for Java 2023? What Java IDEs do professional programmers use?

Looking for answers to these questions? Keep reading.

Table of content:

  1. What are Integrated Development Environments or IDEs?
  2. What types of IDEs are available?
  3. What are the benefits of using Java IDE?
  4. Ten Best Java IDEs in 2023
  5. So, which Java IDEs are best for you?
  6. FAQs

What are Integrated Development Environments or IDEs?

Integrated Development Environments or IDEs are among the most crucial pieces required to construct a software project. They make development easy and efficient. 

IDEs increase the productivity of developers by shortening setup times, accelerating development tasks, keeping developers informed of the most recent dangers and best practices, and standardizing the development process so that anybody can participate.

IDEs can also assist in restructuring the development process. They enable programmers to view their operations as part of the full software development life cycle (SDLC) as opposed to a collection of discrete tasks.

One of the key benefits of an IDE is to carry out all coding work in one program. An IDE act as a central interface with all the tools a developer needs, such as:

  • Code editor: These editors are not text editors. They are designed for writing and editing source code. This feature makes it easier for developers to write and edit the code and saves considerable time.

  • Integrated debugger: Developers can use these integrated debugging tools to test and debug the code of their applications.

  • Compiler: The main task of the compiler is to convert the human-readable/writable source code to a form that computers can understand and execute.

  • Build automatic tools: These tools save a lot of time for the developers as they can be used to automate basic development tasks.

What types of IDEs are available?

Types of Java IDEs

Types of Java IDEs

There are several types of Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) available, including

  1. General-purpose IDEs: These IDEs are designed to support a wide range of programming languages and are typically used by developers working on a variety of projects. Examples of general-purpose IDEs include Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, and Visual Studio.

  2. Language-specific IDEs: These IDEs are designed to support a specific programming language and often include a set of tools and features that are tailored to that language. Examples of language-specific IDEs include PyCharm for Python, RubyMine for Ruby, and Xcode for Swift and Objective-C.

  3. Web-based IDEs: These IDEs are accessed through a web browser and can be used from any device with an internet connection. Examples of web-based IDEs include Cloud9, Codeanywhere, and Replit.
  4. Mobile IDEs: These IDEs are designed specifically for mobile app development and often include a set of tools and features that are tailored to the mobile platform. Examples of mobile IDEs include Android Studio and Xcode.

  5. Embedded IDEs: These IDEs are designed to support embedded systems programming. They often include a set of tools and features that are tailored to the specific needs of embedded systems development. Examples of embedded IDEs include Atmel Studio and IAR Embedded Workbench.

  6. Scripting IDEs: These IDEs are designed to support scripting languages and often include a set of tools and features that are tailored to the specific needs of scripting development. Examples of scripting IDEs include PowerShell ISE and Python IDLE.

Each type of IDE has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of IDE will depend on the specific needs of the developer or the development team.

What are the benefits of using Java IDE?

There are several benefits to using a Java Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Java development, including

  1. Code completion and error detection: IDEs provide intelligent code completion and error detection capabilities that can save a lot of time and improve code quality. This feature helps developers write clean code.

  2. Debugging: IDEs provide a wide range of debugging tools, such as breakpoints, watchpoints, and step-through debugging, that can help developers quickly identify and fix errors in their code.

  3. Refactoring: IDEs provide tools to help developers refactor their code, such as renaming variables and methods, moving classes and methods, and extracting methods. This can make it easier to maintain and improve the quality of code over time.

  4. Version control integration: Many IDEs integrate with popular version control systems such as Git, SVN, and Mercurial, making it easy for developers to manage and collaborate on code.

  5. Build and deployment: IDEs typically provide built-in support for building and deploying Java applications, which can save a lot of time and effort compared to manually building and deploying applications.

  6. Framework support: IDEs provide support for a wide range of Java frameworks and technologies such as Spring, Hibernate, and Maven, which can make it easier for developers to build applications using these frameworks.

  7. Plugins and add-ons: IDEs have a wide range of plugins and add-ons available, which can be used to extend the functionality of the IDE and improve the productivity of the developer.

  8. Community and support: Many IDEs have large communities of developers that contribute to their development and provide support to other developers. This can make it easier for developers to find help and resources when they need it.

Using a Java IDE can help developers to improve productivity, write better quality code, and make it easier to maintain and improve their code over time. Developers can create software applications, drivers, and utilities using the right IDEs, as IDEs allow efficient language syntax. However, choosing the right IDE is difficult because there are so many to choose from. So, here is the list of the top seven JAVA IDEs. 

Ten Best Java IDEs in 2023

Best Java IDEs

Best Java IDEs

  1. IntelliJ IDEA

    With more than 33 percent of the market share, IntelliJ IDEA is the most used Java IDE in 2022. It also has a stellar user rating of 4.3 and a whopping 89 percent user satisfaction.

    IntelliJ IDEA has unique resources like a version control system, frameworks, and multi-language support.

    Key features of IntelliJ IDEA:

    • IntelliJ IDEA contains a clever code completion tool that makes code completion easy. 
    • IntelliJ IDEA offers advanced debugging tools that make coding more effective. 
    • The integration with application servers is very strong. 
    • In its commercial edition, IntelliJ IDEA also provides some incredible tools, such as Perforce integration, duplicate detection, database tools, and more.
  2. Eclipse

    Eclipse is a well-liked Java IDE that accounts for about 48 percent of the market share. It is a remarkable IDE with a 4.8 user rating and 92 percent user satisfaction.

    Eclipse has a solid plugin system that enables developers to create unique features. Eclipse supports Apache Groovy, JavaScript, C++, Python, and many other programming languages.

    Key features of Eclipse:

    • Eclipse is cross-platform and works with Windows, Linux, and macOS. 
    • The features offered by Eclipse include editing, browsing, debugging, and refactoring. 
    • Eclipse provides a wide range of debugging tools that let you debug locally and remotely.
  3. NetBeans

    NetBeans is an integrated development environment for Java. It is a fantastic IDE with 82 percent user satisfaction.

    NetBeans functions on Windows, Linux, macOS, and Solaris. From product concept to deployment, this IDE has built-in tools that add value throughout the software development lifecycle.

    Key features of NetBeans:

    • NetBeans finds problems and offers you features for intelligent code compilation. 
    • You can directly create, debug, deploy, and test applications from NetBeans. 
    • This IDE has pretty straightforward management features.  
    • You can write similar code at the same time thanks to its fantastic code comparison tools.
  4. BlueJ

    This IDE was founded in 1999 by John Rosenberg and Michael Kolling and is one of the best free java IDEs for web development in 2023.

    According to one of the most recent polls, BlueJ has an exceptional user satisfaction rating of 80 percent. Fun fact: BlueJ was initially created for instructional and training purposes.

    Key features of BlueJ:

    • BlueJ offers strong debugging capabilities. 
    • BlueJ is straightforward, convenient, and easy to work on. 
    • BlueJ supports Windows, Linux, and Mac OS. 
    • BlueJ has various cutting-edge features, like an object bench, a code pad, and scope coloring.
  5. JDeveloper

    Oracle Corporation built and manages JDeveloper, which is a free integrated development environment. This incredible IDE has an 80 percent user satisfaction rate and a user rating of 4 out of 5.

    JDeveloper provides many unique capabilities for XML, Java, SQL, PL/SQL, JavaScript, HTML, BPEL, and PHP development.

    Key features of JDeveloper:

    • JDeveloper offers robust debugging features that let users easily examine audit rules and immediately fix problems.
    • JDeveloper is compatible with operating systems like Linux, Windows, and macOS. 
    • JDeveloper includes a fantastic web development environment with drag-and-drop capability that makes designing applications simple.

      Related post: Kotlin vs. Java: What Should You Choose for Your Next Project?
  6. JCreator

    Xinox Software created Java IDE JCreator just a few years ago. However, even in a short span, it has gained a lot of popularity among front-end developers.

    JCreator’s user interface resembles Microsoft Visual Studio quite a bit. Since it is written in C++, JCreator is more effective and swifter than other Java IDEs.

    Key features of JCreator:
    • Pro Edition (Pro), Lite Edition (LE), and Lite-Pro Edition are the three available versions of JCreator. 
    • JCreator offers advanced functions including code completion, project management for debugging, a separate debugger, syntax highlighting, and more. 
    • JCreator has a smaller size and faster speed than other IDEs, so it is ideal for all kinds of developers.
  7. DrJava

    The JavaPLT group at Rice University created, developed, and maintains DrJava.

    DrJava features a built-in debugger and has Junit testing capabilities. Also, it provides commenting, automated completion, automatic indentation, and seamless integration with Eclipse via the plugin.

    Key features of DrJava:

    • DrJava is extremely lightweight, which results in quicker execution of codes. 
    • Because of its incredible interactivity feature, which enables each class to be used independently, troubleshooting is immaculate.
  8. JGrasp

    JGrasp is a simple Java IDE that’s excellent for learning and teaching. It offers syntax highlighting, code navigation, and UML visualization capabilities and has a user-friendly interface.

    JGrasp has favorable evaluations despite being a relatively new player on the market. With numerous customers complimenting its simplicity and usability, it has a high user satisfaction rating.

    Key characteristics of JGrasp: 

    • JGrasp provides a special visual debugger that makes debugging simple and understandable.
    • A built-in compiler provided by JGrasp also makes creating and running Java programs simple.
    • The JGrasp UML visualization tool makes it simple for users to see the organization of their code.
    • JGrasp is adaptable since it supports various languages, including Java and C++. 
  9. CodeMix

    A well-liked Eclipse plugin called CodeMix offers extra functionality for developing websites and mobile apps. It comes with a user-friendly UI and capabilities like code completion, debugging, and integration with well-known web frameworks like React and Angular.

    CodeMix has a high user satisfaction percentage, and many users commend it for its easy integration with Eclipse and its extensive feature set.

    Key features of CodeMix: 

    • Key characteristics of CodeMix: CodeMix provides a robust code completion tool that supports numerous programming languages and frameworks, facilitating speedy and accurate code writing.
    • With the help of CodeMix’s sophisticated debugging tools, developers may quickly find and resolve bugs in their code.
    • Building cutting-edge web and mobile applications is simple with CodeMix because of its integration with well-known web frameworks like React and Angular.
    • CodeMix is a complete solution for developing websites and mobile apps thanks to a number of additional helpful features including a file explorer, terminal, and Git integration.
  10. Sublime

    Popular code editor Sublime is well-known for its quickness, ease of use, and robust capabilities. It has an intuitive user interface and includes tools like syntax highlighting auto-completion, and multiple cursors.

    With a high user satisfaction rate, many users praise Sublime Text for its quick and responsive performance and wide range of customization options.

    Key features of Sublime Text: 

    • A robust search and replace tool that makes it simple to locate and alter text in numerous files.
    • Users of Sublime Text can edit numerous lines of code at once thanks to the multiple cursors feature, which makes it simple to finish routine jobs rapidly.
    • Users may fully personalize Sublime Text to suit their requirements and preferences thanks to the editor’s many customization features.

Related post: Golang vs Java: What Should You Pick?

So, which Java IDEs are best for you? 

The kind of projects or apps being produced, the method the development team uses, the level and talents of individual programmers, and the role in the organization are all important considerations when choosing an IDE or editor. 

However, IDEs play only a part in the development. The developer carries the weight to deliver the best results. 

Java is one of the most popular programming languages today. Top US companies are looking to hire remote Java developers. Do you want a remote software job with companies like Pepsi, Dell, Johnson and Johnson, Reddit, and more? Become a Turing developer today. Click on the Apply for Jobs page to get started.


  1. What is the best Java IDE for beginners?
    Here is a list of the top three IDEs for beginners:
    • Eclipse
    • IntelliJ Idea
    • BlueJ

  2. What is the best free Java IDE?
    Here is a list of the best free Java IDEs:
    • Eclipse
    • NetBeans
    • BlueJ
    • JDevelopers
    • IntelliJ Idea
  3. What are 3 examples of IDE for Java?
    Here are three IDEs for Java as examples:
    • IntelliJ IDEA: This popular Java IDE offers functions like intelligent code completion and potent refactoring.
    • Eclipse: Popular features like code restructuring and interaction with well-liked web frameworks are available in Eclipse, which is extensively utilized.
    • Netbeans: An open-source Java IDE that provides code creation and version control integration.

  4. Which Java IDE is faster?
    It can be difficult to compare IntelliJ IDEA and Eclipse head-to-head to determine which Java IDE is quicker because each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance. Due to its optimized code and memory usage, IntelliJ IDEA is generally thought to be faster and more responsive than Eclipse. Developers may work more quickly and precisely because of IntelliJ IDEA’s robust code completion and refactoring tools, which are also well-known for being swift and efficient.

  5. Which is the lightest IDE for Java?
    It’s frequently said that NetBeans, a free open-source IDE for Java programming, is the lightest one on the market. NetBeans, a Java development tool built on the JavaFX platform, offers several features like code highlighting, code completion, and code generation. What sets NetBeans apart from other popular Java IDEs like IntelliJ IDEA and Eclipse is its lightweight design, which uses fewer system resources. Because of this, NetBeans is a fantastic option for developers who are working on smaller projects or have limited computer resources.

  6. What is the simplest IDE for Java?
    BlueJ is the most basic IDE for Java development and is made to be simple to use, making it perfect for new Java developers. BlueJ offers an interactive object inspector and a basic code editor with a clear and uncomplicated user interface for creating, testing and debugging Java programs. Its open-source status and lightweight architecture make it a wonderful option for beginners who might find more complex IDEs intimidating.

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By , May 4, 2023
Top 10 NPM Packages for Node JS Developers
For Developers

30 Most Popular NPM Packages for Node JS Developers

30 most popular NPM packages for Node js developers: Express, AsyncJS, Lodash, Cloudinary, Axios, Karma, Molecular, Grunt, PM2, Mocha, Moment, Bluebird…….

What are the best and most popular NPM packages? What package does Node js use? What is the most used NPM package? What are the most downloaded NPM packages? Looking for answers to these questions? Keep reading.

Node js can handle huge traffic while maintaining seamless performance. As a result, some major tech companies and new-age startups have adopted Node js to scale their businesses. Node is the market leader in asynchronous frameworks due to its popular demand. What’s more, Node isn’t slowing down anytime soon. Starting with Node js is pretty straightforward. Clear guidelines exist and hundreds of projects are available on GitHub for developers to read, review and analyze. 

Also, Node js has the most popular package manager – NPM. NPM is the default package manager for the JS runtime environment Node js. Thanks to the modules and libraries available through the NPM package manager, creating a website takes only a few minutes. 

Table of Contents:

  1. Why should developers use NPM packages for node.js projects?
  2. Is it safe to use NPM packages for Node.js?
  3. 30 Most Popular NPM Packages
  4. Conclusion
  5. FAQs

Why should developers use NPM packages for Node.js projects?

Why use NPM packages for Node.js projects

Why use NPM packages for Node.js projects

Using NPM packages for Node.js allows developers to easily include and manage external modules in their projects. These packages, which are published on the NPM registry, can provide additional functionality or utilities that would be time-consuming or difficult to implement from scratch. Additionally, using packages from the NPM registry allows developers to benefit from the work of other developers and easily share and collaborate on their own code.

Using NPM packages in a Node.js project can provide several benefits, including:

  1. Reusability: NPM packages allow developers to use pre-existing code, which can save time and effort in development.
  2. Community support: Many popular NPM packages have a large and active community of developers who contribute to and maintain the package, providing bug fixes, new features, and overall improvements.
  3. Dependency management: NPM automatically manages dependencies between packages, ensuring that the correct versions of dependencies are installed and updated.
  4. Good shareability: NPM packages can be easily shared and installed across different projects, making collaboration and code sharing more efficient.
  5. Large selection: NPM has a large selection of packages available, covering a wide range of functionality, including libraries for server-side rendering, data validation, and more.

Is it safe to use NPM packages for Node.js?

Best practices to follow while using NPM packages

Best practices to follow while using NPM packages

In general, it is safe to use NPM packages for Node.js, as long as you take certain precautions. Here are some best practices to follow when using NPM packages:

  1. Use packages from reputable sources: Make sure you are using packages from reputable sources, such as well-established and widely-used packages, or packages that have been recommended by trusted developers.

  2. Keep packages up-to-date: Regularly update your packages to ensure that they are using the latest version, which may include security fixes.

  3. Check for known vulnerabilities: Use a tool like NPM audit to check for known vulnerabilities in your packages, and take steps to address any issues that are found.

  4. Be mindful of package permissions: Be aware of the permissions that a package is requesting, and only install packages that have the minimum permissions required for your application.

  5. Read the documentation: Before installing a package, read the documentation to understand what it does and whether it is suitable for your project.

It’s worth noting that, as with any open-source software, it’s always a good idea to check the code of the package you’re using and see if it contains any suspicious or malicious code.

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your use of NPM packages is as safe as possible.

30 most popular NPM packages

Developers love NPM packages and use them extensively in web development. However, they also get overwhelmed because there are thousands of packages available in the market. So, what should you pick? We’re here to help you make the best choice.

Here is a list of the 30 most popular NPM packages for Node js developers.

Top 15 NPM packages for Node JS developers

Top 15 most popular NPM packages for Node JS developers

  1. Express

    Express.js is one of the simplest and fastest Node.js web frameworks. This framework was designed to be flexible enough to produce single-page apps, multi-page apps, and hybrid apps for desktop and mobile devices.

    Express’s architecture is compact and provides great performance. Express is the most popular Node js framework for developing online apps and APIs, and solid tooling for HTTP servers. Other popular Node js frameworks Sails, Hapi, and Nest js are based on Express.

    Features of Express js

    • Robust routing
    • Focus on high-quality performance
    • Super high test coverage
    • HTTP helpers (such as redirection and caching)
    • Content negation
    • Executable for developing apps and APIs
  2. Async

    You cannot miss out on Async when talking about the most popular NPM packages. Async or Asynchronous is widely used in Node js to ensure that development actions do not stall. Other processes can proceed even before the first action is completed thanks to asynchronous I/O.

    Also, Async monitors workflow via queues, allowing developers to add extra tasks, extra callbacks, and manage failures with callbacks. As a result, Async is more versatile and reliable for managing complicated dependencies.

    Async js provides functions like ‘map’, ‘filter’, ‘reduce’, ‘parallel’, ‘series’, ‘waterfall’, and ‘each’.

    Features of Async

    • Async supports inline functions and text strings.
    • Error handling from the dependency queue.
    • The use of AsyncLocalStorge within Async js creates asynchronous states within callbacks and promise chains.
    • A collection of Async functions controls the flow through the script.
    • Async helps developers avoid memory leaks.
    • Async helps developers integrate AsyncResource with EvenEmitter.
    • Async supports asynchronous functions.
  3. Lodash

    Next on our list of top NPM packages is Lodash. Lodash is a modern JavaScript library with many useful features. The popular Underscore.js utility library influenced Lodash. Built-in functions in Lodash make app development more efficient.

    With Lodash, developers can utilize a single line of code instead of writing a common function multiple times.

    Also, Lodash makes Node js coding easier by taking the hassle out of working with common programming functions such as arrays, objects, numbers, strings, dates, etc.

    Features of Lodash

    • Keep the Node js code minimal and neat.
    • Developers only need to remember Lodash functions. This action makes coding easier.
    • New developers can understand Lodash quickly.
  4. Cloudinary

    If you’re looking for a way to manage the photos in your web application, Cloudinary is a great place to start. Cloudinary is a full-fledged cloud service with many valuable features.

    From uploading visual content to resizing photographs and cropping options, Cloudinary has it all. Cloudinary is user-friendly enough so both new developers and experts can benefit from it.

    API allows developers to seamlessly incorporate Cloudinary into any project or application. However, they will need to sign up for a free account to try Cloudinary.

    Cloudinary’s official website has all of the additional information about its use, setup, configuration, embedding, and more.

    Features of Cloudinary

    • Remote fetch, auto-backup, and revision tracking.
    • Image and video transformations.
    • Video transcoding and adaptive streaming.
    • High-performance delivery through a CDN.
    • Support for forums, tickets, and email.
    • Access to free add-ons.
  5. Axios

    Next on our NPM package list is Axios. Axios is an HTTP client API framework that allows developers to make promises while making a request. Requests communicate with the server, and Axios responds with a promise as to whether your request was fulfilled or refused.

    Among many developers, Axios is gaining a lot of traction, thanks to Axios-fetch, Axios-debug-log, Axios-mock-adapter, Axios-API-versioning, Axios-VCR, and other powerful third-party additions.

    Axios can handle GET, POST, DELETE, and PUT requests.

    Features of Axios

    • Allows developers to make simultaneous requests.
    • Axios supports promised base requests.
    • Transforms responses and requests to JSON data.
    • Requests and responses to interceptions.
    • Support HTTP requests for Node js apps
    • Supports HTTP requests from browsers.
  6. Karma

    Node js developers must test their applications to ensure they are stable, dependable, and perform well. This job requires a Karma package. Karma’s primary goal is to provide a productive testing environment to developers.

    Features of Karma

    • Tests code in real browsers.
    • Tests code in multiple browsers (mobile phones, tablets, and desktops).
    • Controls the whole testing workflow from command or IDE.
    • Executes tests after every save.
    • Executes tests locally during development.
    • Executes tests on a continuous integration server.
  7. Molecular

    Molecular is a Node js microservices library that is fast, modern, and powerful. Molecular helps Node js developers in creating efficient, dependable, and scalable applications.

    Features of Molecular

    • Molecular uses promise-based solutions.
    • Molecular supports event-driven architecture with balancing.
    • Molecular supports versioned services.
    • Molecular has built-in caching solutions such as memory and Reds.
    • Molecular has built-in metrics features with reporters, such as Console, CSV, Datagod, and StatsD.
    • Molecular has a built-in service registry and dynamic service discovery.
    • Molecular employs a request-reply concept.
    • Molecular has fault tolerance features such as Fallback, Timeout, Retry, Bullhead, and Circuit Breaker.
  8. Grunt

    Another popular name on this list of most popular NPM packages is Grunt. With a task runner, Grunt developers can reduce the number of tasks required to maintain a project, automate minifications, compile jobs, testing, code linting, and other duties.

    Features of Grunt

    • Grunt has a plethora of plugins that can automate even the most monotonous jobs.
    • Grunt allows developers to publish Grunt-specific plugins through NPM.
  9. PM2

    For most Node js users, process management is a top concern. So you cannot overlook PM2 when talking about the most popular NPM packages.

    PM2 includes process management for production applications and a load balancer to assist with performance adjustments.

    PM2 allows developers to keep their applications online indefinitely. This step enables developers to reload applications without experiencing any downtime.

    Features of PM2

    • Behavior Configuration
    • Container Integration
    • Watch & Reload
    • Log management
    • Monitoring
    • Max memory reload
  10. Mocha

    Mocha is a feature-rich JS test framework that runs on Node js and the browser, making asynchronous testing simple and enjoyable.

    Mocha tests are executed sequentially, allowing flexible and precise reporting while mapping uncaught exceptions to the appropriate test cases.

    Features of Mocha
    • Multiple browser support.
    • Simple async support, including promises.
    • Test coverage reporting.
    • String diff support.
    • JavaScript API for running tests.
    • Auto-detects and disables coloring for non-TTYs.
    • Async test timeout support.
  11. Moment

    Next on our list of the most popular NPM packages is Moment. Moment is an easy-to-use JavaScript library for manipulating, formatting and validating dates. It supports both Node.js and web browsers and offers a simple-to-use JavaScript API for working with dates.

    Moment offers a lot of customization and flexibility. With functions like add, subtract, startOf, endOf, and others, dates can be easily manipulated while supporting a wide range of date and time formats as well as timezones.

    Key features of Moment:

    • Portable and simple to use

    • Various date and time formats that are supported

    • Comprehensive timezone support

    • Powerful formatting and manipulation tools

    • Compatible with web browsers and Node.js.

  12. Babel

    Popular JavaScript compiler Babel converts the most recent JavaScript code into code that is backward-compatible. It is a tool for programmers who wish to leverage features of newer languages but still have to support outdated platforms and browsers.

    Babel has many configuration options and may be set up to accommodate a variety of plugins and presets. It is a potent tool for contemporary web development because it also has capabilities for debugging and code optimization.

    Key features of Babel:

    • Creates code that is backward compatible with contemporary JavaScript.

    • Utilizing presets and plugins to customize

    • Supports code optimization and debugging

    • Popular in today’s web development.


    A JavaScript library called is next on the list of our most popular NPM packages. enables real-time, bidirectional communication between clients and servers. It enables the development of interactive and dynamic web applications, including chat programs and multiplayer games.

    Since supports a variety of protocols and fallback options, clients and servers can communicate without interruption even when there are problems with the network. With a wide range of setup options and support for different events kinds, it is also quite flexible.

    Key features of

    • Bidirectional, real-time interaction between clients and servers

    • Includes fallback options and supports several protocols

    • Highly adaptable and accommodating of different event types

    • Widely used, especially for real-time applications, in web development.

  14. Mongoose

    For MongoDB databases, Mongoose is a JavaScript package that offers an object data modeling (ODM) layer. By offering a higher-level API with features like validation, middleware, and query creation, it makes it easier for Node.js applications to communicate with MongoDB databases.

    Mongoose is perfect for complicated data models since it allows a wide variety of data types and connections between them. With support for plugins that add new features, it is also quite extensible.

    Key features of Mongoose:

    • Offers a layer for object data modeling for MongoDB databases.

    • Makes it easier for Node.js apps to interface with MongoDB databases

    • Enables a variety of data kinds and associations

    • Highly extensible and plug-in compatible.

  15. Bluebird

    Last but not least on our list of the most popular NPM packages is Bluebird. A sophisticated and effective implementation of Promises, a well-liked asynchronous programming style in Node.js, is offered by the JavaScript package Bluebird. Numerous features and performance improvements are available, such as quick promise implementation, error handling, cancellation, and more.

    Bluebird can function easily alongside other JavaScript libraries and frameworks since it is so compatible with them. Large-scale Node.js applications are frequently powered by it in production situations.

    Key features of Bluebird:

    • Provides a powerful and efficient implementation of Promises

    • Provides a variety of features and performance improvements.

    • Extremely compatible with other JavaScript frameworks and libraries
      Widely used in production environments.

  16. React

    You cannot miss out on React when talking about the most popular NPM packages. React is a popular JavaScript library for building user interfaces, particularly for single-page applications.

    Features of React
    • Component-based architecture for building reusable UI elements.
    • Virtual DOM for efficient rendering and performance optimization.
    • The declarative syntax for describing UI state and handling UI updates.
    • A large ecosystem with extensive community support and third-party libraries.
  17. Redux

    Redux is a predictable state container for JavaScript applications, commonly used with React.

    Features of Redux
    • Centralized state management for predictable application behavior.
    • Immutable state updates for easier debugging and time-travel debugging.
    • Middleware support for intercepting and extending functionality.
    • Compatibility with different UI frameworks.
  18. Jest

    Jest is a JavaScript testing framework by Meta. It provides a comprehensive set of testing utilities and an easy-to-use API.

    Features of Jest
    • Support for both synchronous and asynchronous testing.

    • Snapshot testing for detecting unintended changes in UI components.

    • Mocking and spying capabilities for isolating dependencies.

    • Built-in code coverage reporting.

      Also, read: 10 Popular Software Testing Trends in 2023 

  19. Webpack

    Webpack is a module bundler that is widely used in modern JavaScript development to bundle and manage project dependencies.

    Features of Webpack
    • Bundling of JavaScript, CSS, and other assets for efficient delivery.
    • Support for module-based development using import/export syntax.
    • Code splitting for optimized loading and lazy loading of resources.
    • Extensive plugin system for customizing the build process.
  20. GraphQL

    Another hot pick on the list of most popular NPM packages is GraphQL. GraphQL is a query language for APIs. It is also a runtime for fulfilling the said queries with existing data. 

    Features of GraphQL
    • Declarative data fetching, enabling clients to request only the specific data they need.

    • Strong typing and schema definition for robust and self-documented APIs.

    • Efficient and performant data retrieval through batched requests.

    • Support for real-time updates and subscriptions.

  21. Redux-Saga

    Redux-Saga is a library for managing side effects, such as asynchronous or impure actions, in Redux applications.

    Features of Redux-Saga
    • A declarative approach to handling complex asynchronous flows.
    • Generator-based functions for expressing async logic in a sequential and testable manner.
    • Fine-grained control over the handling of async actions and their effects.
    • Integration with Redux DevTools for debugging and time-travel debugging.
  22. Nodemailer

    Nodemailer is a module for Node.js applications that enables you to send emails easily. 

    Features of Nodemailer
    • Support for various email delivery methods, including SMTP, Sendmail, and Amazon SES.
    • Comprehensive email composition capabilities, including HTML content and attachments.
    • Templating support for dynamic email generation.
    • Error handling and event-based notifications.
  23. React-Router

    React-Router is a popular routing library for single-page applications built with React.

    Features of React-Router
    • Declarative routing with dynamic matching and rendering of components.
    • Support for nested routes and route parameters.
    • Browser history management for navigation and URL synchronization.
    • Code-splitting and lazy loading of route components.
  24. React Native

    React Native is a JavaScript framework for building native mobile applications for iOS as well as Android platforms.

    Features of React Native
    • Cross-platform development with reusable components and codebase.
    • Access to native device APIs and functionalities.
    • Hot reloading for fast development and instant UI updates.
    • Performance is comparable to native apps.
  25. Cheerio

    Cheerio is a fast and flexible HTML parsing and manipulation library that mimics jQuery’s syntax.

    Features of Cheeerio
    • Has jQuery-like syntax for traversing and manipulating HTML as well as XML documents.
    • Lightweight and efficient, designed for server-side rendering and scraping tasks.
    • Support for CSS selectors for easy element selection.
    • Integration with other libraries for data extraction and manipulation.
  26. dotenv

    In simple words, dotenv is a zero-dependency module that loads environment variables from a .env file into process.env.

    Features of dontev

    • Simplifies configuration management by storing sensitive information in a .env file.
    • Seamless integration with Node.js applications.
    • Support for different environments (development, production, etc.) with separate .env files.
    • Variable expansion and interpolation for complex configurations.
  27. Passport.js

    Last but not least on our list of the most popular NPM packages is Passport.js. Passport.js is an authentication middleware for Node.js that provides a simple, modular, and flexible approach to handling user authentication.

    Features of Passport.js
    • Support for multiple authentication strategies, including local, OAuth, OpenID, and more.
    • Easy integration with Express and other Node.js frameworks.
    • Session management and persistent login sessions.
    • Customizable and extensible to fit different authentication requirements.
  28. Winston

    Winston is a versatile logging library for Node.js applications, offering multiple transports and customizable log levels.

    Features of Winston

    • Support for multiple log transports, including console, file, database, and more.
    • Configurable log levels and formatting options.
    • Integration with popular frameworks and libraries.
    • Asynchronous logging for performance optimization.
  29. Sharp

    Sharp is a high-performance image processing library that enables resizing, cropping, and manipulating images in Node.js.

    Features of Sharp
    • Efficient image resizing and transformation operations.
    • Support for various image formats, including JPEG, PNG, and WebP.
    • Advanced image manipulation, such as overlaying, watermarking, and applying filters.
    • Optimized for speed and memory usage.
  30. Puppeteer

    Puppeteer is a Node.js library providing a high-level API for automating headless Chrome as well as Chromium browsers.

    Features of Puppeteer
    • Automated web scraping and crawling.
    • Web testing and UI interaction automation.
    • PDF generation and screenshot capturing.
    • Performance monitoring and analysis.


Open-source frameworks help developers improve their skills in delivering professional applications that are lightweight and reliable. They make the overall development process smooth and efficient. Therefore, knowing these packages is absolutely necessary for developers.

We hope you found this list of the most popular NPM packages useful.

If you are an experienced Node js developer who wishes to work on projects with major US-based tech companies and enjoy excellent pay, visit

With Turing, you can apply to remote US software jobs from the comfort of your home. Also, you can join a network of the world’s best developers and get full-time, long-term remote software jobs with solid compensation and career growth.

Best NPM packages


  1. What are the best NPM packages?
    Here is the list of the most popular NPM Packages:

    1. Express
    2. AsyncJS
    3. Lodash
    4. Cloudinary
    5. Axios
    6. Karma
    7. Molecular
    8. Grunt
    9. PM2
    10. Mocha

  2. How many packages are there in NPM?
    Over 1.3 million packages are available in the main NPM registry.

  3. What is the NPM package in Node JS?
    NPM Inc. maintains NPM, a package manager for the JavaScript programming language. For the JS runtime environment Node js, NPM is the default package manager.

  4. How do NPM packages work?
    NPM install is a command that downloads a package. NPM install can be used with or without parameters. NPM install downloads dependencies defined in a package.json file and creates a node module folder with the installed modules when called without parameters.

  5. What are the most popular NPM packages?
    The largest software registry in the world, NPM has more than 1.5 million packages. Express, React, Lodash, Async, and Request are some of the NPM packages that are most frequently used. With the help of these packages, Node.js and JavaScript programmers may create apps more quickly and effectively.

  6. How to find the best NPM packages?
    It’s critical to take into account unique project requirements, package popularity and usage, update frequency, community support, and documentation quality while looking for the finest NPM packages. Check the package’s GitHub repository and issue tracker for bugs and security issues. Research and contrast related packages. Analyze the overall stability and dependability of the package. Follow new trends and experiment with various packages.

  7. Is NPM package an API?
    No, an NPM package is not an API. A group of JavaScript files and assets known as an “NPM package” offer a particular feature, such as libraries or tools. On the other hand, APIs are collections of rules and guidelines that let various software programs talk to one another. NPM packages themselves are not APIs, even though some of them may contain APIs or offer interfaces for interacting with external APIs.

  8. What are the three components of NPM?
    The registry, command-line interface (CLI), and package.json file are the three parts of NPM (short for Node Package Manager). Over a million packages of open-source code for Node.js are housed in the registry, a public database. The CLI is a tool that enables developers to interact with the registry and install, publish, and manage packages. The package.json file is a metadata file used to automate operations like installation and build procedures. It contains facts about the project, including its dependencies, scripts, and other configuration information.


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By , May 4, 2023
Meet the Sales Development Representative Team at Turing
For Developers

Meet the Sales Development Representative Team at Turing

What is it like to be a Sales Development Representative (SDR) at Turing? Well, you get flexibility, freedom, and excellent culture, say the people on the job!

What it’s like to be a Sales Development Representative (SDR) at Turing?

Darshan Khemka answers!

Sales Development Representative (SDR) at Turing

Darshan Khemka: Sales Development Representative (SDR) at Turing

Kehmka recalls when his recruiter called to extend an offer to join Turing. “I still remember I was on tour to South India while interviewing with Turing in August 2022. The remote first workplace was something I was looking to join to keep up with my love for traveling. Then I realized this is the opportunity I have always been waiting for…let’s just go with it. So this was my ‘I saw the opportunity and I took it’ moment. My tour continued till October 2022; Turing’s remote first policy and work culture has always supported my passion while I worked full time.”

Now a Growth Specialist, Darshan’s work involves researching prospective clients, making cold calls, and generating meetings that can result in revenue for Turing. His day-to-day tasks include researching prospective customers, making calls, follow-ups, pipeline building, and tracking daily activities. Darshan is also involved in running the SMS Magic campaign. “I am loving working at Turing—processes here are extremely streamlined. You know, this is my third organization, and this is the first organization where there’s literally no micromanagement in sales, which is very, very rare, and a lot of freedom has been given to us,” he explains.

Darshan loves playing and watching football. He also loves traveling —it’s not uncommon for Darshan to explore new cities, and Turing provides him the flexibility to work from anywhere. 

“Wherever there’s the internet I can work whether it’s raining cats and dogs, snowing, or 50°C, I can always work,” he grins.

Summing up his experience as an SDR at Turing, he says “I’m enjoying those eight hours because I’m just working and I’m not being pestered or micromanaged by anyone. The team believes in collaborative efforts; everyone is there to support each other. About work—most of the youth will relate as well—people are hired to do a particular thing and then are asked to do 10+ additional tasks. Here at Turing, we are doing what we are hired to do, we are not piled up with unnecessary tasks. No interference, everything is good. I am loving it here at Turing.”

Here’s what Michael Oppong has to say about his journey in Turing!

Sales Development Representative (SDR) at Turing

Michael Oppong: Sales Development Representative (SDR) at Turing

Michael Oppong is a Sales Development Representative at Turing. He joined Turing almost a year back, and his experience has been full of learning and growth since then.

A large part of what sold Michael on Turing is its feedback culture.  He values that the organization constantly welcomes feedback – no matter when it takes place.  During the SDR interview process, Michael interviewed with Senior Growth Manager Anurag Gupta, and Anurag wanted to share with Michael what he should highlight in his background for subsequent interviews.  

“Even during my interview process Anurag shared feedback with me, guided me on things to prepare so I can perform to my full potential in the next rounds, and took the time to educate me about the team and their goals. I thought someone who has not even hired me but is very much interested in sharing his knowledge with me must be a great person to work with and a great place to explore my potential,” he remembers. 

In his own words, what keeps Michael going is his empathetic and supportive team. “For me, I like everything about Turing, but particularly I really like having one-on-one conversations with my direct manager Arun because his feedback and inputs have helped me a lot in improving myself as an SDR.”

According to Michael, this feedback helps him take corrective action over mistakes and stay aligned with what’s expected of him. 

“Apart from work, we also have virtual hangout sessions,” Michael continues. “On Friday we all gather on a Zoom call with drinks in hand and talk about random stuff apart from work like what’s happening around the world and everyone’s interests/hobbies. It’s super fun.”

In addition to having a strong team, Michael finds Turing’s workplace to be a significant factor that attracted him to the company. “What I love the most is the work environment. It is very empowering, and everyone helps each other grow. There is a sense of collectivism that Turing encourages, and one thing I would like to point out is the respect that everyone offers. I remember when I got my first client meeting cracked and the way everyone appreciated—it was such a confidence boost for me!” 

Sharing what he loves to do outside of work hours,  Michael says “… I would probably be watching a show or a series or playing football which is a great passion of mine. I also love the flexibility Turing offers which helps me enjoy my time with my family and do things I am most passionate about.”

Summing up his experience as an SDR at Turing, Michael says that Turing has been his dream company to work for. “I live in Ghana. Turing is one of the prominent organizations here—you can see Turing all over the place, on Linkedin, Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter. It has its place. When I got an invite to apply for the Sales Development Representative role, I got really excited. It was truly memorable for me. Probably one of the happiest days ever!” 

Work with us

Feeling inspired to work with us? We are always on the lookout for great talent. Have a look at our active openings and apply here. If you don’t find a suitable role, drop an email to

If you’re a software developer looking for remote jobs, head over to the Apply for Jobs page!

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By May 4, 2023
Infrastructure as Code
For Developers

Infrastructure as Code (IaC): A Beginner’s Guide 2023

Infrastructure as code (IaC) is defined as the continuous practice of using programming languages and machine-readable code to manage and configure computing

Traditionally, infrastructure management was a manual process. But the rise of cloud computing and virtualization has made Infrastructure as Code (IaC)  a popular approach to infrastructure management. This blog post will discuss Infrastructure as Code, its benefits, how it works, its best practices, the challenges associated with using it, and more. Let’s get started. 

Table of Contents

  1. What is Infrastructure as Code?
  2. Benefits of Infrastructure as Code
    • Increased consistency and repeatability
    • Collaboration and version control
    • Cost management
    • Idempotency
    • Security and Compliance
  3. How Infrastructure as Code works
    • Mutable vs Immutable Infrastructure
    • Terraform
    • Ansible
    • Kubernetes
    • AWS CloudFormation
  4. Infrastructure as Code deployment process
  5. How to create and manage Infrastructure as Code (IaC) configurations
  6. Best practices for implementing Infrastructure as Code (IaC)
    • Version control and continuous integration
    • Testing and validation
    • Documentation and organization
    • Automation and orchestration 
  7. Challenges of Infrastructure as Code
    1. A steep learning curve
    2. The complexity of infrastructure
    3. A cultural shift in the organization
  8. Conclusion

What is Infrastructure as Code?

Infrastructure as code (IaC) is defined as the continuous practice of using programming languages and machine-readable code to manage and configure computing infrastructure, instead of manual configuration. Computing infrastructure includes servers, storage centers, databases, networks, and web servers.

IaC is an integral part of the software development life cycle. The process of provisioning infrastructure is automated, so developers do not need to set up manually for each application development and deployment stage. 

Benefits of Infrastructure as Code

Benefits of Infrastructure as Code

Benefits of Infrastructure as Code

Infrastructure as code benefits in software development outweighs that of manual configuration and development. They are discussed below:

  1. Increased consistency and repeatability: Using automated infrastructure prevents application downtime, and reduces the risk of errors encountered during manual configuration. Configured environments can be reused for different applications. The source code is documented in a readable format that anyone with technical expertise can use.
  2. Collaboration and version control: Manual changes to existing systems, such as the addition of new features, are a risky business. Iac ensures that the previous versions of source code are stored. That way, users can quickly revert to older versions in case of security breaches or other unforeseen occurrences. Team members working on the same project can make their contributions individually from remote locations in a seamless manner.
  3. Cost management: Traditional provisioning and development take place in physical data centers. Maintenance of these by organizations costs a ton and is not favorable for small businesses and startups. Cloud service providers provide virtual environments for automation and deployment, on a pay-as-you-go basis.
  4. Idempotency: This is the practice of deploying code several times without the subsequent deployments affecting the first. This can be seen with the addition of new code. It ensures that only the new changes are applied. Some IaC tools have features that make source code idempotent.
  5. Security and compliance: The use of automated infrastructure ensures that businesses and organizations deploy applications according to stipulated guidelines, under secure working conditions. The infrastructure is built while considering security protocols. This way, the source code can be deployed continuously across different environments, and security breaches can be avoided.

How Does Infrastructure as Code Work?

There are two approaches to infrastructure as code; the imperative approach and the declarative approach. The imperative approach makes users define what steps they want a system to follow, while with the declarative approach, the users only state the end product they want. The platform being used takes the steps needed to achieve the required result. The declarative approach is the preferred method because it is flexible and allows the use of many tools.

Mutable vs Immutable Infrastructure

Mutable infrastructure refers to infrastructure that can be manipulated after it has been set up. It is dynamic and can allow changes to be made to configuration settings, applications, and code.

Immutable infrastructure, on the other hand, is the infrastructure that cannot be manipulated once it has been set up. Changes can only be made by creating a new version of the infrastructure and deploying it. 

The key difference between them is the level of control and flexibility it offers users. They both have their benefits and downsides and should be chosen in accordance with the project specifications.

Infrastructure as Code Tools

Tools used to implement the infrastructure as code process

Tools used to implement the infrastructure as code process

There are several tools used to implement the Infrastructure as Code process, some of which are discussed below.

  1. Terraform. Terraform is an IaC tool that is used to create and manage resources with its accessible APIs. It allows users to define a workflow for their provisioned infrastructure and is available for cloud and on-premise cloud provider stations. It can be used to provision and manage infrastructure on different cloud providers, like AWS, GCP, Azure, and others. 
  2. Ansible. Ansible is an open-source IaC tool written in Python used to configure and provision applications. It is simple and easy to use, with pre-built idempotent modules that only make changes to a system when necessary. It functions on Windows, MacOS, and Linux operating systems. Ansible can be used for configuration management, security and network automation, and provisioning of servers.
  3. Kubernetes. Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration tool. Asides from managing containers, it is used for infrastructure provisioning and management. Like Ansible, it functions on major operating systems like Windows, Linux, and macOS. Applications can be built, tested, containerized, and deployed continuously, with little to no downtime. Kubernetes’ features include continuous integration and deployment, migrating applications to the cloud, and database management.
  4. AWS CloudFormation. AWS CloudFormation is a service that can be used to provision and manage cloud applications on AWS, with the use of its resources. Templates are used to describe resources and their properties, while CloudFormation provisions the applications. These templates can be reused and deleted easily. AWS CloudFormation’s unique features include ease of replication of infrastructure in different regions, version control, and scalability.

Also, read: AWS Cerftification Guide: All You Need to Know

Infrastructure as Code Deployment Process

The first step is for the developer team to specify the infrastructure requirements needed to provision applications. This is often done using tools like Ansible and Terraform, alongside a domain-specific programming language. These requirements may vary, and they include servers, databases, and application load balancers. After that, the code is managed by a version control system like Git. This is done to foster collaboration and mark changes made.

Before deployment, the code is tested to ensure correctness. The test process is automated. Continuous integration and deployment are incorporated into the process after testing. This ensures that the applications are handled according to the software development life cycle. Here, the code is deployed with the aid of automation tools such as Jenkins or Circle CI. Monitoring and logging start after the infrastructure code has been deployed successfully. This is to observe security protocols and optimal performance.

How to Create and Manage Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Configurations

Creating and managing infrastructure configurations requires a step-by-step process to ensure their success. 

The first step is to specify the requirements needed to host the application. This is a crucial step because it determines the success of the project.

The next step is to choose a suitable infrastructure as a code tool. Popular tools include AWS CloudFormation, Terraform, Ansible, and Chef. After that, the code is written. This is usually domain-specific. This means that the programing language has to be compatible with the IaC tool being used.

The code is then stored in a version control system, tested, and integrated into a CI/CD pipeline. 

Automation tools such as Jenkins are used to deploy the infrastructure code to the production environment. The infrastructure service is then monitored for potential issues.

These practices altogether improve and maintain infrastructure automation, reliability, management, and scalability.

Best Practices for Implementing Infrastructure as Code

Best Practices for Implementing Infrastructure as Code

Best Practices for Implementing Infrastructure as Code

The following are best practices for implementing and deploying infrastructure as code (IaC).

  1. Version control and continuous integration: Version control enables teams to collaborate on projects and make changes to the infrastructure code simultaneously, without conflicts. Continuous integration ensures that all changes made to the infrastructure code are automatically tested and deployed automatically, without harming existing projects. 
  2. Testing and validation: Testing is done to verify that The source code matches the specified requirements, and functions properly. There are two types of testing; unit tests which focus on single parts of the code, and integration tests which work on validating transactions between components. Validation is carried out to make sure the infrastructure code is compliant with security, governance, and compliance policies. Testing and validation are carried out to make sure the infrastructure code is secure. 
  3. Documentation and organization: Documentation is done to enable team members to have a collective understanding of the infrastructure code and its components. It is done using Markdown syntax, documenting code, and using illustrations. The documentation should be updated regularly so it can remain valid. Organization entails arranging code using a consistent file structure and using version control to make code easy to read, scale, and maintain.
  4. Automation and orchestration: Automation eliminates manual processes, reduces the risks of errors, and enables the development and deployment of applications to be carried out fastidiously. Orchestration involves managing several components of infrastructure to make them work together in a coordinated manner. This can be carried out with tools like Kubernetes and Docker. When implemented effectively, automation and orchestration manage finances, hasten deployment processes, and ensure the infrastructure is working properly.

Challenges of Infrastructure as Code

Challenges of Infrastructure as Code

Challenges of Infrastructure as Code

Despite the advantages of infrastructure as code, there are challenges associated with implementing infrastructure as code. They are as follows;

  1. A steep learning curve. This is the time range or duration needed to gain expertise in a particular skill set. Some IT technicians find it hard to transition from manual configurations to automated processes associated with the IaC workflow. Organizations can counter this by enrolling their staff in development programs dedicated to using IaC tools and supporting them in using free online resources to enhance their growth.
  2. The complexity of infrastructure. Tools used in manual configuration processes differ from IaC tools, which are more complex. Automating the process can be tricky for those as the code becomes bulky. It can be handled by using modular code, templates, and version control.
  3. A cultural shift in the organization. Infrastructure as code architecture demands continuous collaboration, learning new concepts, working in a fast-paced environment, and constant communication. Moving from manual to automated processes can only be successful with a positive mindset, and willingness to learn. This might be difficult due to existing hierarchies in organizations and can be tackled by re-orientation programs, and creating new roles to accommodate IaC solutions.


Infrastructure as code (IaC) is a unique approach to provisioning IT infrastructure. It allows teams to collaborate on projects easily while reducing the risk of human errors. Its benefits include cost management, scalability, reliability, and consistency in work routines. Although there are challenges that impede its implementation in some organizations, they can be tackled using the right tactics.

The future of infrastructure as code in software development looks promising, with the rapid use of cloud computing and DevOps practices.

If you’re a software developer looking for remote software jobs with top US companies, try Turing. Visit the ‘Apply for Jobs’ for more information.


  • What is IaC?
    IaC stands for Infrastructure as Code. It is the process of setting up and managing applications on automated infrastructure.
  • What are the benefits of Infrastructure as Code (IaC)?
    Some of the benefits of IaC include collaboration and version control, idempotency, and reduced risk of human errors due to manual configuration.
  • How many approaches exist to IaC?
    There are two approaches to Infrastructure as Code: the imperative approach and the declarative approach.
  • What are some popular tools used to implement IaC?
    Some of the popular tools used to implement Iac include Ansible, Terraform, Kubernetes, and AWS CloudFormation.
  • Is AWS CloudFormation an IaC tool?
    Yes, AWS CloudFormation is an IaC tool owned by AWS.
  • What is the IaC deployment process?
    The IaC deployment process follows a pattern of infrastructure provisioning – application hosting – choosing suitable IaC tools – writing code-continuous integration, version control, and deployment – monitoring, and logging.

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By May 1, 2023
8 In-Demand Programming Languages to Learn in 2023 (1)
For Developers

8 In-Demand Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

What are the popular programming languages to learn in 2023? 1. Python 2. JavaScript 3. TypeScript 4. Swift 5. PHP 6. C++ 7.Kotlin 8. Java

What programming languages are in demand in 2023? Should I learn Java or Python in 2023? Let’s find out!

Software developers are in huge demand today. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for software developers, including software engineers, will increase by 22 percent between 2022 and 2030 compared to four percent in other careers.

If you are looking to enhance your software developer skills for a promising future, then learning the most popular programming languages is very critical. Before we dive into the best programming languages to learn in 2023, here is a quick understanding of the levels and types of programming languages and the tools used to measure the popularity of the programming languages.

Table of content

  1. Levels of programming languages
  2. Types of programming languages
  3. Top indices to track the metrics of coding languages
  4. What are the best languages to learn?
    1. Python
    2. Java
    3. JavaScript
    4. TypeScript
    5. PHP
    6. C++
    7. Swift
    8. Kotlin
  5. So, which is the best programming language to learn in 2023?
  6. Can I work remotely as a programmer?
  7. FAQs

Levels of programming languages

Each programming language has its own purpose, syntax, and keywords to create the instructions. The main levels of programming languages are:

Low-level languages

Low-level programming languages, machine code, or assembly-level languages provide low abstraction from a computer’s set of instructions. Programs written in low-level languages are non-portable and not readable by humans. Some low-level programming languages are Assembly, BASIC, FORTRAN, Cobol, and C.

High-level languages

High-level languages have robust in-built abstractions that make problem-solving simple. These languages produce bug-free programs. High-level language codes are independent of the computer type. These languages are user-friendly. What’s more, learning and maintaining such languages are easy. Some high-level programming languages are  Java, PHP, C#, and Swift.

High level Programming Languages

High-level Programming Languages

Types of programming languages

Types of programming languages

Types of programming languages

  1. Procedural programming languages

    Procedural programming languages involve executing a sequence of instructions to solve a problem. These programming languages use multiple variables, heavy loops, and elements that segregate procedural programming languages from functional programming languages. Some examples of procedural programming languages are  BASIC, FORTRAN, C, and Java.       

  2. Functional programming languages

    A functional programming language uses mathematical functions to perform computations. The language focuses on what to solve rather than how to solve it.  This programming language does not support controls like loop and conditional statements. Some examples of functional programming languages are Python, Haskell, Clojure, Erlang, and Lisp.

  3. Object-oriented programming languages (OOP)

    Object-oriented programming language structures the software into simple, reusable pieces of code blueprints. These code pieces are usually referred to as Classes. Classes create individual instances of objects. Object-oriented programming languages help wrap data and functions in a class. Some examples of OOP languages include  Java, C++, Python, and JavaScript.

  4. Scripting programming languages

    Scripting programming languages use instructions for a run-time environment. These programming languages integrate and communicate with other programming languages. Web applications, multimedia, gaming applications, and system administration use scripting languages. Some examples of scripting programming languages include Python, Ruby, Node.js, Perl, and Bash.

  5. Logic programming

    Logic programming is based on formal logic. In logic, with available data, the execution of programming computation happens with logical inferences. Programs represented with logic programming are sentences in a logical form expressing facts and rules of a problem domain. Examples include Prolog, Answer set program (ASP), and Datalog.

Top indices to track the metrics of coding languages

Certain tools, such as indexes, help understand: Which is the most popular programming language? These indices analyze programming languages based on:

  • Ranking in search engines and social media platforms

  • Job advertisements mentioning the language

  • Open-source projects in the given language

  • Videos on the language

  • Students enrolled to learn the language.

Indices to track the metrics:

  • PYPL Index

    In the PYPL Popularity of Programming Language index, the metrics are based on Google Trends, reflecting the developers’ search patterns for a particular programming language’s tutorials.
    The top four ranked coding languages by PYPL in 2022 are Python, Java, JavaScript, and C.

  • TIOBE Index

    TIOBE Programming Community Index ranks the top languages based on the number of searches done in popular search engines like Google, YouTube, Bing, Wikipedia, Amazon, and more.
    The top four languages with the highest ratings by TIOBE are Python, C, Java, and C++.

  • IEEE Spectrum

    IEEE generates rankings combining 11 metrics from the top eight sources like Google, GitHub, Twitter, Stackoverflow, Reddit, Hacker News, Career Builder, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library. Searches are sorted on the basis of trending, job searches, and custom ranking.
    The top four languages ranked by IEEE in 2021 are C, C++, Java, and JavaScript.

  • Stackoverflow Developer Surveys

    Stackoverflow is an in-demand Q&A website for developers. The top four languages ranked by Stackoverflow in 2021 are JavaScript, HTML/ CSS, SQL, and Python.

What are the best languages to learn?

Top in-demand programming languages

Top in-demand programming languages

After a basic understanding of the programming levels, types of programming languages, and indices to analyze their popularity, let’s dive into the best programming languages to learn in 2023.

  1. Python

    For years, Python has remained the most popular programming language. Python’s popularity grew when big tech companies like Netflix, Facebook, and Khan Academy started using it as their major programming language.

    Python can do several tasks, from simple scripting to advanced web applications and artificial intelligence. Google’s TensorFlow is a Python-friendly open-source machine learning platform.

    Python is the best data science tool that makes machine learning easy and effective. Python job roles have the highest number of listings. Ten thousand on Glassdoor and about 14,000 on Indeed! 

    Related post: 8 Python Interview Questions Managers Ask Developers

  2. Java

    Java is one of the oldest and most widely used programming languages across the globe. Java is the top programming language for DevOps, virtual reality, big data, mobile chatbots, and continuous integration.

    Android accounts for 85 percent of the mobile market share, with Java as the main programming language. Top companies like Airbnb, Google, Netflix, Instagram, Uber, Amazon, and Spotify use Java in their tech stacks.

    Why Java is one of the best languages to learn for software development roles? Java is downloaded one billion times a year. It is the go-to programming language for 97 percent of enterprises, which is more than any other programming language. Java developers are in high demand, as most businesses want to build mobile applications for their products or services.

  3. JavaScript

    There are over 1.8 million websites worldwide, and more than 95 percent of these websites use JavaScript. JavaScript gave life to the browser experience by creating web pages with interactive elements. JavaScript allows users to set up dynamic and interactive content, animated graphics, and complex features on the website.

    Top web browsers like Google Chrome and Apple Safari support JavaScript.  Mobile and web apps are developed with JavaScript frameworks. Apart from apps and websites, web servers and backend infrastructure are developed with the JavaScript runtime environment, Node.js.

    Related post: 6 Popular JavaScript Frameworks to Choose from in 2023

  4. TypeScript

    Microsoft released TypeScript in 2012 as a “typed” version of JavaScript. TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript supporting JavaScript libraries and programs. Advanced features in TypeScript like type-checks provide quick validation and ensure that the codes typed are free of errors.

    Typescript provides additional syntax to JavaScript to support better integration with an editor. According to the 2021 State of JS survey, 69 percent of survey respondents use TypeScript now compared to 21 percent six years ago.

  5. PHP

    PHP is a server-side general-purpose scripting language used for developing dynamic and interactive websites. PHP can be embedded into HTML and can help users write simple scripts with its advanced features.

    PHP is one of the easiest languages to learn and use without much knowledge or experience in web development. Also, it is compatible with all the major platforms like MAC OS, Windows, and Linux.

    According to the data of WS Techs, 78.9 percent of all websites with a known server-side programming language are using PHP. Out of ten, eight websites on the Internet use PHP in some way.

  6. C++

    C++ is an advanced version of the C language. Developers commonly use C++ to design simple applications for operating systems. Also, C++ helps develop powerful mobile applications.

    C++ is widely used for game development, web development, machine learning, and data mining applications.  With C++, the programs run faster than in any other programming language.

  7. Swift

    Developed by Apple, Swift is a quick, safe, interactive, and modern programming language. In the US, iOS leads the mobile operating system market share with 57.65 percent. These numbers prove that Swift is the dominant programming language for Apple products.

  8. Kotlin

    Kotlin is one of the favorite programming languages of Android developers, as it is easier to use than Java. Since it is interoperable with Java, developers can resume project work even from the middle. They don’t have to start coding from scratch.

    According to a study, Kotlin is among the top three programming languages most businesses plan to migrate their apps to in 2022. Global tech companies like Google, Trello, NetFlix, and Amazon already use Kotlin. What’s more, Uber and Pinterest are migrating their apps from Java to Kotlin.

So, which is the best programming language to learn in 2023?

Whether you are an experienced developer or new to software development, learning the most in-demand programming languages will boost your career opportunities. 

Check out the above indices that measure the language rankings, ratings, and popularity, to determine which languages to learn. Let us know in the comments which programming language would be your choice to learn in 2023.

Can I work remotely as a programmer?

Yes, you can! Skilled software developers are in demand today.  With Turing, you can land high-growth and high-paying remote software jobs with top US companies from the comfort of your home. 

Turing helps developers build careers, not gig jobs, by actively placing them with industry leaders doing cutting-edge work. Turing matches developers with opportunities aligned with their skills, career goals, and aspirations. Apply for jobs in React, Node, Python, Angular, Swift, React Native, Android, Java, Rails, Golang, DevOps, ML, Data Engineers, and more.


  1. Which programming language is in demand in 2023?

    The best in-demand programming languages to learn in 2023 are:
    1. Python 
    2. JavaScript 
    3. PHP 
    4. C++ 
    5. TypeScript 
    6. Java 
    7. Swift 
    8. Kotlin

  2. Is Python worth learning in 2023?

    Yes, Python is a programming language worth learning in 2023. Python is an easy-to-learn and versatile language that boosts the coding skills of developers. As per a Statista survey, 48.2 percent of developers worldwide use Python.

  3. Should I learn Java or Python in 2023?

    For beginners, Python is the best language to learn as it is easy to learn, straightforward, has simple syntax, and easy to navigate features. While Java is for advanced learners as it is a rigid language where extensive programs have to be written for simple calculations.

  4. What is the highest-paying programming language?

    Python, Java, Golang, Ruby, C++, C#, SQL, etc. are some of the highest-paying programming languages.

  5. What is the hardest programming language?

    Malbolge, LISP, Haskell, and Prolog

  6. Is C++ worth learning in 2023?

    C++ is an object-oriented programming language used in a variety of applications. Great performance, speed, efficiency, and accuracy make it a language worth learning in 2023.

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By Apr 26, 2023
Golang vs. Java What Should You Pick
For Developers

Golang vs. Java: What Should You Pick?

Golang vs Java: Go is a statically typed, multi-paradigm, compiled, & general-purpose programming language by Google. Java is Sun Microsystem’s class-based, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.

The Golang vs Java comparison pitches two notoriously fast backend programming languages. Is Golang better than Java? Is Golang harder than Java? Will Golang replace Java? This blog post will highlight the various related to Golang and provide you with enough information to decide what’s best for you.

Java has been around for a long time, curating its position as a powerhouse in the software industry for backend development. Golang, on the other hand, is relatively new. Developers use Golang and Java worldwide. Both languages compete directly for control of server-side web applications.

However, they also compete in other areas, such as learning time, web development, performance, developer payout, and more. 

This post highlights the similarities, differences, and business applications of each language. 

Let’s get started.

Table of content

  1. Golang
  2. Java
  3. Golang vs Java: Comparison
    • Golang vs Java: Features
    • Golang vs Java: Performance
    • Golang vs Java: Community
    • Golang vs Java: Usage
    • Golang vs Java: Application
    • Golang vs Java: Popularity
  4. Which is best for web development – Golang or Java?
  5. Summary


Launched in 2011, Go or Golang is an open-source language from Google. Similar to Java, Golang is a statically typed, multi-paradigm, compiled, and general-purpose programming language. 

Go’s syntax is close to ‘C’ as the language’s compiler was built in C. But it is now written in Golang, allowing the language to remain self-hosted. 

Golang is a concurrent programming language built for modern multicore processors, meaning it can perform several tasks at once. It also features deferred garbage collection, which manages memory to run programs quickly.


Java is a statically typed general-purpose programming language released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. 

Initially, Java used to be the preferred language for server-side applications. However, that is no longer the case now. Despite this, hundreds of applications around the world use Java. Various platforms, ranging from old software on servers to modern data science and ML applications, are built on Java. 

There are ample pre-built modules and codes available because Java is famous among developers. These modules and developer availability make coding in Java easy.

Java is versatile. Meaning, the language runs anywhere there’s a processor. It’s similar to a compiled language where the virtual machine breaks down the code into bytecode before compiling it. 

Golang vs Java: Comparison 

Golang vs Java

Golang vs Java

Golang and Java are high-performing server-side languages that have some relationship to ‘C.’ But which language wins the Golang vs Java battle? Here is a side-by-side comparison. 

  1. Golang vs Java: Features

    Golang and Java provide ample features. However, Java is better suited for complex tasks because it is object-oriented. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) drives code reuse thereby creating a better developer experience. In addition, Java enables the code to self-reflect during runtime to spot errors. 

    Golang is not an object-oriented language, and it does not support inheritance or reflection, making it less flexible than Java.

    Garbage collection is one of Golang’s most important features. Garbage collection is also available in Java, but it isn’t as powerful. Garbage collection helps in handling huge codebases.

    In addition, the concurrency of Golang is also an essential characteristic. ‘Goroutines’ enables functions or procedures to run parallelly to each other. Java has multithreading capabilities that provide a similar effect, although significantly less powerful than Golang’s.
  2. Golang vs Java: Performance

    Even though Java is quick, Golang outperforms Java in most metrics.

    Java’s lack of performance is partly due to its virtual machine for Java compilation. Though it allows Java to run on any platform, this virtual machine reduces its speed.

    Golang has the upper hand. In Golang, testing is easy, and the user experience is better. Golang is quick because it is similar to ‘C’.

    Also, the memory management in Golang contributes to its speed. When it comes to unnecessary object references, automatic garbage collection eliminates the need for pausing.

    Related post: C++ vs Java: What Programming Language Should You Choose?
  3. Golang vs Java: Community

    Java is older and more popular than Golang.

    Some years ago, Java was the most extensively used server-side programming language. Today, Java competes with Python for that title, but Java still has a larger community than Golang.

    Recruiters can easily find Java developers. Also, Java developers easily get guidance from the Java community, as it is large and widespread. 
  4. Golang vs Java: Usage

    Golang is a breeze to use.

    Golang’s syntax is unique. For English speakers, the language is simple to read and write. Golang has a total of 25 keywords to define predetermined actions as well as internal operations. Also, Golang’s library is small, which makes skimming easy.

    And, unlike most programming languages, Golang’s syntax eliminates brackets, parentheses, and the colons that programmers frequently use at the end of lines.

    Java is complex. The use of Java necessitates a developer’s undivided attention. However, working with Java’s sophisticated syntax offers flexibility and loose coupling.

    Related post: ​​What Are the Best Programming Languages for AI Development?
  5. Golang vs Java: Application

    Although Java and Golang are both server-side languages, their applications are different.

    JVM enables Java to run across platforms with little to no difficulty, making Java a great cross-platform programming language.

    Golang is limited in its reach. For example, Golang converts code into a binary file to run on any platform. Meaning, building a binary file for individual platforms will take you more time than needed.

    Related post: Node.js vs. Golang: Which One’s Best for You?

    It is time-consuming to compile the various binary files for each platform. So if you want portability, Java is the best option.

    While Golang may not be your first choice for building a mobile app, it can still have a place in your tech stack if you want to optimize your backend. Golang’s parallelism makes it an excellent choice for machine learning, but only when Python or Java isn’t available.
  6. Golang vs Java: Popularity

    Even today, Java is the most used server-side language. And so, you will see Java racing with Python, Go, and many other popular languages. In other words, Java is a veteran in comparison to Go. And so, when it comes to popularity, Java easily beats Go.

    These days, the new coding community primarily opts for Go as their server-side language. Java has massive open-source data online. In addition, the community is super active with round-the-clock feedback.

    But Go is no less. You will find several open-source libraries, code examples, and other seasoned Go coders guiding new adopters and delivering consistent feedback.

Which is best for web development – Golang or Java?

Golang vs. Java What is best for web development (1)

Golang vs. Java What is best for web development (1)

Both Java and Golang excel at back-end web development.

Java is extremely platform-agnostic. The JVM allows developers to build web applications on Linux, Windows, and OSX without compiling them into binary every time. It also has a strong community that provides assistance, tools, and tech stacks to create complex servers quickly. 

However, Java’s major use has shifted from backend web development to backend mobile development, to the point that Google now uses Java virtually exclusively for Android apps.

On the other hand, large-scale network servers use Golang for their operations. Golang features built-in support for HTTP/2 and provides web development flexibility, scalability, and simplicity in a way that Java cannot. 

Also, developers don’t have to worry about utilizing third-party web servers or libraries because there are enough existing tools to construct web servers.


Java and Golang are powerful, popular, and useful. But still, they have significant differences. Go is better suited for microservices whereas Java is better for large systems and projects with good timelines. Java is older, object-oriented, and has a larger library and community. Golang is a multi-paradigm and better supports concurrency. While Golang runs faster than Java, Java has more features and better support. Go has a leaner learning curve as compared to Java. If simplicity and memory management are your priority, then Go is a good option.

Deciding which language is best for professional use depends on what kind of websites or applications you’re developing. If you are a software developer looking for remote Java jobs or remote Go jobs, try Turing. With Turing, you can land high-paying, long term jobs with top US companies, right from the comfort of your home. Want to know more? Click on the Apply for Jobs button.


  1. Is Golang faster than Java?

    Golang is generally faster than Java for certain types of applications, particularly those that require a lot of concurrencies. However, Java has better memory management, which can make it more suitable for applications such as financial systems, healthcare applications, e-commerce platforms, etc.

  2. Can Golang replace Java?

    Golang and Java have different strengths. While Golang is popular for applications requiring high concurrency and microservices architecture, Java is great for enterprise-scale applications with a large and mature ecosystem of libraries and frameworks. The choice between the two depends on the specific project requirements and the development team’s skillset. It’s not a matter of one language completely replacing the other.

  3. Is Golang in demand in 2023?

    Golang is expected to continue to be in demand in 2023 and beyond. Golang’s popularity has been growing steadily over the past few years, particularly for building microservices and cloud-native applications, and it is likely to continue to be a popular choice for these types of applications. Additionally, Golang’s strong performance and concurrency features make it an attractive option for certain industries, such as finance and healthcare, where speed and reliability are crucial.

  4. Should I learn Go or Java?

    The choice between learning Go and Java depends on your goals and project requirements. Java is commonly used for large-scale enterprise applications, while Go is often used for microservices and cloud-native applications. Consider the specific context and learning curve of each language before making a decision. Java has a larger standard library and a more complex syntax which makes it a bit challenging to learn. On the other hand, Golang has a simpler syntax, with fewer language features and a smaller standard library, which can make it easier to learn.

  5. Are Golang developers in demand?

    Yes, Golang developers are in demand in organizations building microservices, cloud-native applications, or apps with a need for high performance and concurrency. Golang’s popularity has been growing steadily over the past few years, but the demand for Golang developers may vary based on region, industry, and job market trends.

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By Apr 25, 2023
Technical Hiring Managers Ask These 15 Questions during Interviews
For Employers

Technical Hiring Managers Ask These 15 Questions during Interviews

Looking for software developer jobs? Here are 15 interview questions that technical leaders and engineering managers love asking during the recruitment process.

Are you nervous about an upcoming technical interview? If so, this post can make things a little easier for you. Here are 15 technical interview questions that hiring managers from different companies love asking their candidates.

Table of Content:

  1. Technical interview questions hiring managers ask:

  2. How to successfully answer these technical questions?

  3. How can hiring managers use the OCEAN personality test in an interview?

  4. Interview questions to ask your hiring manager

  5. How to ask about layoffs and the current financial situation of the company?

  6. Summary


Technical interview questions hiring managers ask

Could you tell us about a time you failed?

Starting with this question might come as a surprise for many. But, according to Megan Gray, team operations manager at Marxrent, this helps the interviewer analyze how the person overcame their past failures. He says: “Employees who hide behind failures waste time and cause confusion.” A true professional will admit to their mistakes, and more importantly, learn from them and move ahead.

  1. Technical hiring manager interview questions: How does the Internet work?

    “While this may sound like a straightforward question in a technical interview, the answer can tell you a lot about the candidate,” says Robert Gibbons, the CTO of Datto. For example, some candidates may choose to explain it as: “It’s like a post office. You send a letter and get a response back. Others will start with intrinsic details, like defining IP addresses, DNS servers, and so on. And thus, the answer gives the interviewer an insight into the candidate’s areas of focus.“ 
  2. What qualities do you want in your manager or leader?

    According to Margaret Freel, a recruiter at Tech Smith, this unorthodox question helps interviewers understand what management or leadership style is ideal for a particular candidate. Such technical interview questions also help to identify if the candidate is self-aware and engaged in the job. Moreover, the interviewer can assess whether the company’s leadership aligns with the candidate’s expectations. After all, it’s the leadership that motivates employees to do their jobs effectively. An effective manager will always be keen to know more about the potential candidate.
  3. Technical interview questions: What are the recent exciting challenges you’ve overcome?

    Tim Julien, VP of Engineering at Bonobos, says that this question can help calm down an otherwise nervous candidate. As the interviewer asks about the candidate’s problem, the latter controls what they say and reveal, making them more comfortable. Julien adds that the interviewer should dig deeper and learn more about the challenge faced by the candidate and not just the gist of it.
  4. Questions to ask during recruitment: How would your last coworkers describe you?

    A question like this one forces the candidates to analyze themselves according to how their coworkers view them. Michael Boufford, VP of Engineering at Greenhouse, says that the answers vary from dependable to opinionated. This way, the technical hiring manager delves deeper into why the candidate’s coworkers thought so about them. In addition, knowing about the candidate from a different perspective can help the interviewer analyze the latter’s compatibility with the peers.
  5. Technical interview questions: Why do you get up every morning?

    This question gives insight into how the candidate’s passion aligns with their career goals. According to Miguel Quiroga, Head of Digital at Verizon Fios, startups have rapidly growing teams. And thus, this question explains whether the candidate will be a good fit for the fast-paced work culture.
  6. Technical hiring manager interview questions: What, according to you, makes an ideal coworker?

    This question helps Nate Smith, co-founder, and CTO of Lever, analyze what the candidate thinks about the people they want to work with and whether they can differentiate between the strengths different coworkers bring to the team. A great candidate will answer this question with many details, while a good candidate will only offer skimmed information. Therefore, the interviewer can analyze if the candidate will be an exceptional or challenging coworker.
  7. Technical interview questions: What is the first thing you do if you are not able to solve a problem?

    Annette Stone, Senior Manager of Recruiting at Wayfair Engineering, says that this helps analyze whether the candidates can manage a problem by themselves. For example, will they try to search for the answer independently or directly bring it to their managers? This question aims to help the interviewer determine if the candidate is good at solving problems.
  8. What is your dream job?

    If a candidate is not excited to talk about their dream job, how can they be keen to work on the job they are interviewing for? This question has no correct answer; it’s more about how honest the candidate is while answering it. It tells you a lot about the candidate [than their resume], says Sara Hetyonk, Talent Acquisition Manager at Ontraport. It also reveals the candidate’s long-term plans and goals.
  9. Have you been working on a side project?

    Brain Pugh, VP of Engineering at Lucid Software, states that if a candidate is working on a side project, it is a good indicator of their passion for coding. And as the code is often public, the interviewer can check the quality of the code written by the candidate.
  10. Technical interview questions: When you start a new project, what is your process for doing it successfully?

    Matt Doucette, Director of Global Talent Acquisition at Monster, has six P’s that he looks for in a candidate through this question, Purpose, Plan, Process, Persistence, Persuasive communication, and Pride. He wants to know why the candidate chose what they do, how they plan to do it and involve others, how they will deal with success and failure, etc.
  11. When did you start programming, and what was the first thing you built?

    This question is not to check the candidate’s skill level but to gauge how excited they are to describe a significant moment in their career. Harj Taggar, co-founder and CEO of Triplebyte, says that he checks the candidate for fundamental communication skills through this question. He also adds that this question allows the candidate to shine in the best way possible.
  12. Have you gone through our website? What can be improved?

    Kenn Peters, Director of People at Vettery, says that the above question is crucial as it shows how much the candidate is interested in the company. It also highlights whether the candidate can think about the product from a builder’s perspective and not just the user’s perspective. Frequently, candidates fail to look at the website. Failure to look at the company website should be a red flag for the interviewer.
  13. Technical interview questions: What has motivated you to take out time to talk to me?

    Tech jobs are always in demand. Hence, top-tier tech professionals have the option of choosing their pick of employers. Thus, it is essential to know what the candidate is looking for in the organization. Emoke Starr, Head of HR at Prezi, says that asking the candidate about their motivation helps them match the company’s offering to the candidate’s needs.
  14. What have we missed about you that you want us to know?

    Through this question, Courtney Graham, Senior Director of HR, ReadyTalk, tries to understand why candidates want the job and not just their qualifications. According to Graham, everyone—even the most technical people—should possess selling skills as they are critical in real life. So, candidates who are passionate about the job can always answer this question up to the interviewer’s expectations.

Related Post: Six Mistakes Hiring Managers Should Avoid 

Engineering manager interview questions: How to successfully answer these technical interview questions?

The above technical interview questions will test your soft skills such as communication, confidence, and ability to work under pressure. That way, engineering managers will be able to analyze how well you can fit into their team. It is common for candidates to feel nervous during these interviews. 

Remember, technical interview questions for hiring managers related to previous projects, experience with previous management, motivation, ideal coworkers, dream jobs, career challenges, etc., analyze your personality and abilities. 

The best way to easily course through such technical interviews is to communicate properly with the engineering manager or the hiring manager. If you’re not sure about the question or the answer, don’t hesitate to ask for an explanation. A hiring manager will surely be interested in you if you show a similar interest in the job you’re applying for. 

Last but not least, in a technical interview, you should also ask a few questions about the role you’re applying for, the team you’ll be working with, and the organizational goals. This step will help you decide on the job offer. Moreover, this will also show the technical hiring manager that you’re interested in the role.

But what about the employer and company-related questions to ask during recruitment? Keep reading to find out! 

How can hiring managers use the OCEAN personality test in an interview?

The OCEAN personality test is an acronym for Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. The OCEAN test can help hiring managers analyze crucial insights about the candidates before hiring them. Such insights can be crucial in decision-making to hire the right candidate.

Let’s take a look at the questions candidates can ask a hiring manager during interviews. 

Interview questions to ask a hiring manager

The hiring managers will ask you different technical and analytical questions to analyze you for the role they’re hiring. Similarly, you’ll also have different offers from different companies. So, here’s a list of interview questions to ask hiring manager in order to know more about the company:

  1. What will my day-to-day responsibilities look like in this role?
  2. What projects can I expect to come my way?
  3. What is the company’s roadmap for the coming months, or maybe years?
  4. Can you help me to explore your company’s work culture?
  5. If the company is working remotely, what are the ways that managers use to boost the productivity of their remote workers?

How can you ask hiring managers about layoffs and the financial situation of the company?

It’s understandable if you have concerns about the financial stability of the company and the possibility of layoffs. Raising such sensitive topics during an interview can be tough, so it’s important to approach them with tact and professionalism. Here are a few ways to approach the subject:

  1. Ask about the company’s performance: Bring up the company’s recent performance and ask about the challenges it has faced. This can provide insight into the company’s current financial situation and may open up a discussion about layoffs.

  2. Ask about the company’s plans for the future: Ask about the company’s plans for growth and expansion, and how the position you’re interviewing for fits into those plans. This will tell about the company’s stability and potential for layoffs in the future.

  3. Ask about the company’s track record with layoffs: If the company has a history of layoffs, it’s important to understand the circumstances under which they happened and how they handled the situation. Ask about the measures taken to protect the remaining employees and the members who were impacted.

It’s important to remember that the hiring manager may not be able to provide specific details about the company’s financial situation or layoffs. Still, they should be able to give you a broader perspective on the company’s current performance and position in the market.

When asking these questions, make sure to use a neutral tone and explain why you’re asking them. After all, you’re just trying to understand the company better and make an informed decision about your future.


The above technical interview questions for hiring managers help them analyze candidates on a level deeper than their technical skills. Preparing for these technical manager interview questions can help boost your confidence and avoid uncertainty before the interview. Remember, these technical interview questions analyze your life skills and ability to adapt to the work environment, so, it’s always a good idea, to be honest with your answers. Also, interview questions to ask hiring manager can help you know more about the company and the role you’re applying for.

Are you an engineering leader or hiring manager looking to hire skilled, pre-vetted developers? If yes, try Turing. Turing can help you spin up your engineering dream team in just 3-5 days. Head over to the Hire Developers page to know more!


  1. What does an interview with hiring manager mean? Is hiring manager interview technical?

    In an interview with hiring manager, you’ll be asked about your skills, past experience, qualifications, your ability to fit in a team, and how well you can work under pressure. You can expect hiring managers to ask you technical questions to analyze your technical skills.

  2. How many interviews does a hiring manager do?

    A hiring manager can conduct one to three interviews per candidate depending upon the level of position that the company is hiring for.

  3. Does hiring manager ask technical questions?

    Yes, hiring managers will definitely ask you technical questions as well as analytical questions to analyze your skills as well as your ability to fit in the company’s culture.
  4. What kind of questions do technical recruiters ask?

    Technical hiring managers will be asking questions to assess your technical, soft, and hard skills. These may include:

    • How do you approach problem-solving and debugging in your work? 
    • Can you walk me through a project you worked on from start to finish, including any challenges you faced and how you overcame them?
    • How do you stay current with new technologies and trends in your field?
    • Can you provide an example of a successful project you led and how you ensured its success?
    • What experience do you have with the specific technology or programming languages mentioned in your resume?
  5. What are examples of technical questions?

    As a technical hiring manager, you can ask various technical questions to judge the technical skills of the candidate. Here are some examples:

    • What is the difference between HTTP and HTTPS?

    • Can you explain the concept of cloud computing and its benefits?
      Can you describe the process of debugging a complex technical issue and the tools you would use?

    • How would you approach scaling a web application to handle increased traffic and demand?

    • Can you explain the concept of DevOps and its role in software development and deployment?

      You can also ask questions to assess the soft skills of the candidate. Here are some examples:

    • Can you describe a time when you had to work collaboratively on a project? What was your role, and how did you contribute to the team’s success?

    • Can you provide an example of a time when you had to work under pressure or meet a tight deadline? How did you manage the situation?

    • How do you ensure that you continue to learn and develop your skills in your field?

    • Can you describe a time when you received constructive feedback? How did you respond to the feedback and what did you learn from the experience?

  6. What are technical interview skills?

    A candidate must possess some skills in order to ace a technical interview. These skills include technical knowledge, effective communication, problem-solving capabilities, time management, continuous improvement and learning, and attention to detail. 

  7. How do you clear a technical interview?

    Having technical knowledge, problem-solving skills, and soft skills can help you clear a technical interview. To clear a technical interview, you need to be well-prepared, knowledgeable, and confident. Practice your technical skills, problem-solving abilities, and soft skills, and be ready to demonstrate your expertise to the interviewer.



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By Apr 24, 2023
What Is Cross-Browser Compatibility Testing and Its Best Practices
For Developers

What Is Cross-Browser Compatibility Testing? What Are Its Best Practices?

What is cross-browser compatibility testing? Cross-browser compatibility testing is the process of testing a website or web application to ensure that it is

In today’s digital world, a website is a customer’s first impression of a company. As a result, it has become important for websites to be visually appealing and user-friendly. However, with the variety of web browsers available to consumers, ensuring that a website looks and works the same across all platforms can be challenging. Cross-browser compatibility testing is the process of testing a website across multiple web browsers to ensure that it is compatible with all of them.

This blog covers all the basics of cross-browser testing along with the practices for cross-browser compatibility testing.

Table of Contents

  1. What is cross-browser compatibility testing?
  2. What are browser compatibility issues?
  3. What is the difference between cross-browser and compatibility tests?
  4. Why is cross-browser compatibility testing important for developers?
  5. Types of cross-browser compatibility testing
    • Backward compatibility testing
    • Forward compatibility testing
  6. Who performs cross-browser compatibility testing?
  7. Seven best practices for cross-browser compatibility testing
    • Build a browser matrix
    • Use automated browser compatibility testing tools
    • Test on real devices 
    • Conduct code Validation
    • Build on a good framework
    • Check support for your CSS properties
    • Test throughout the development process
  8. Conclusion

What is cross-browser compatibility testing?

Cross-browser compatibility testing is the process of testing a website or web application to ensure that it is correct and consistent across all browsers and browser versions. 

A more technical definition from TechTarget states that “cross-browser testing, also known browser testing, is a quality assurance (QA) process that checks whether a web-based application, site or page functions as intended for end users across multiple browsers and devices.”

As a developer, brand, or content creator, you do not want your website or application to look different or unorganized on separate browsers. Since different browsers display web content uniquely, cross-browser compatibility testing helps ensure consistency in presentation regardless of which browser users are on.

The testing process involves opening your website or application in various browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and more, and checking for functional or visual differences. Using various testing tools helps you check for any layout issues, such as overlapping or misaligned elements. You can as well verify that all features and functionality work as intended. 

What are browser compatibility issues?

What are some common browser compatibility issues

What are some common browser compatibility issues

Some common issues that can arise during cross-browser testing include:

  • Differences in rendering web pages
  • Inconsistencies in how CSS styles are interpreted and applied
  • Compatibility issues with plugins like Flash or Java
  • Compatibility issues with third-party libraries and frameworks
  • Browser-specific bugs related to form submission, caching, and more

Also, read Cache Control Headers and Their Use Cases You Must Know! 

What is the difference between cross-browser and compatibility testing?

Cross-browser testing and compatibility testing in software testing are related concepts in the field of software development, but they are not exactly the same.

Cross-browser testing is the process of testing a website or web application across different web browsers to ensure that it works correctly and consistently across all of them. The aim is to identify and fix any issues or inconsistencies arising from browser-specific differences. Cross-browser testing ensures the website or web application looks and functions as intended across different browsers.

Compatibility testing, on the other hand, is a broader concept encompassing testing a software application across different environments, including operating systems, devices, browsers, and other relevant configurations. Compatibility testing in software engineering ensures that the software works well and is compatible with the intended target environment.

Why is cross-browser compatibility testing important for developers?

As a developer who works with or plans on working with different clients, it is imperative to have a great-looking website on most browsers to leave a strong impression. 

Browser compatibility testing is often overlooked during the website development process. Developers and designers usually focus on using one browser, especially Chrome, when building a site and may check it on a few other browsers before considering the project complete. This is acceptable for a simple site but not for complex, large-scale websites. 

By conducting cross-browser compatibility testing, developers can identify and fix compatibility issues before deploying the website or application. This can help ensure a consistent user experience across different browsers and devices, improving user satisfaction, increasing traffic, and driving conversions. Of course, this is what every developer should aim for.

Types of cross-browser compatibility testing

There are two main types of compatibility tests: backward and forward compatibility tests.

Backward compatibility testing

Backward compatibility (downward compatibility) testing verifies whether a new version of a software application is compatible with the previous version(s). It ensures that the new software version can work with the data, configurations, and other components used in the earlier versions without any issues or errors.

Forward compatibility testing

Forward compatibility testing verifies whether a software application or system can work seamlessly with future software or hardware component versions without compatibility issues or errors. It is also known as “upward compatibility testing” or “future compatibility testing.

Other more specific types of compatibility testing include:

  • Browser (Cross-browser) compatibility testing: This ensures your site or app is compatible across multiple browsers.
  • Mobile compatibility testing: This testing ensures that a mobile application is compatible and functions correctly across mobile devices like iOS and Android OS.
  • Device compatibility testing: ensures that an application is compatible with devices such as USB port devices, Bluetooth, printers, and more.
  • Network compatibility testing: ensures your application compatibility and performance with different networks like Wi-Fi, 3G and 4G networks, and more.
  • Operating system (OS) testing: ensures your application is compatible with various OSs like Windows, Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, etc.), and Mac.

Also, read: Core Web Vitals: What Are They and How to Improve Them?

Who performs cross-browser compatibility testing?

Cross-browser compatibility testing can be performed by various professionals, including web developers, software testers, quality assurance engineers, and web designers. Today, the market has several browsers, versions, and systems. And so, it can be daunting for the tester to decide which one to use. Fortunately, this decision is heavily influenced by the client, business analysis, and marketing teams. Furthermore, businesses also acquire the website’s or app’s usage and traffic data to identify the most popular devices, environments, and browsers.

As mentioned above, the QA and design teams may both be involved in the process of cross-browser testing. However, regardless of which team conducts the evaluation, the design and development teams thoroughly assess the results and make required adjustments accordingly.

Seven best practices for cross-browser compatibility testing

7 best practices for cross-browser compatibility testing

7 best practices for cross-browser compatibility testing

This section will cover some best practices for successful cross-browser compatibility testing.

Build a browser matrix

A browser matrix involves listing the browsers and versions you are designing the website. Making your application compatible with every browser and browser version is nearly impossible. This is because different browsers accept and reject various CSS properties. This process is common. Therefore, you must decide which browsers are most important for your site or application and target them and their various versions. 

For you to effectively build a browser matrix, you should first think about your target audience. For instance, if you have an audience of marketers who use Chrome, develop accordingly. 

Since the general audience constantly updates their browsers, your browser matrix should also be updated.

A browser matrix helps you plan what components you can use on your website. 

Use automated browser compatibility testing tools

One of the best ways to run a successful compatibility test is by using automated browser compatibilities tools like BrowserStack, Sauce Labs, LambdaTest, and more. An automated testing tool can save time and effort during cross-browser compatibility testing. These tools can test websites across multiple browsers and provide detailed reports on any compatibility issues found.

Test on real devices

Testing a website on real devices ensures it functions correctly across all platforms. Emulators and simulators can be useful tools, but they do not always accurately replicate the experience of using a real device. Testing on real devices can also help to identify any issues with touch functionality or screen resolution.

Conduct code validation

Code validation deals with checking your code to see if it is in accordance with W3C standards.  As a web developer, it is important you do this. Not following these standards can lead to your site or applications winding down. A well-validated and formatted website will make your application compatible, along with other benefits like improved SEO, easy maintenance, and more.

Build on a good framework

As a web developer, building a website with a good framework is a great start toward cross-browser compatibility. Frameworks are optimized for cross-browser issues from the go and automatically create responsive elements, so developers don’t need to hardcode.

Bootstrap is a good example of a framework. It comes with in-built functions that are responsive. All you need is to inherit the class and element, and your web application will be rescaled automatically on smaller devices.

Check support for your CSS properties

As stated earlier, different browsers support various CSS properties. What one browser supports, another browser won’t. For instance, the Chrome Browser supports the backdrop-filter property but not Firefox.

Fortunately, tools like ‘Can I Use’ lets you check CSS properties compatible with each browser. You will no longer waste much time designing a poorly-supported web application.

Also, read: 6 Contemporary Designs Using CSS with Code Samples for 2023

Test throughout the development process

Cross-browser compatibility testing should not be left until the end of the development process. Testing should be conducted throughout the development process to identify and address any compatibility issues as they arise. This saves time and effort in the long run by preventing the need for extensive testing and debugging at the end of the process.

Also, read: 10 Popular Software Testing Trends in 2023 

Best tools for cross-browser testing

Best tools for cross-browser testing

Best tools for cross-browser testing

Let’s look at some of the top recommended tools that help streamline the process of cross-browser testing.


Bitbar offers a cloud-based real device lab that enables you to deliver optimal web and mobile experiences to your customers across various browsers and devices. With BitBar, you can easily conduct manual and exploratory tests on real browsers, desktops, and mobile devices, ensuring your customers have the best experience on the latest and most popular platforms.


Selenium is widely recognized for its ability to automate the testing of web-based applications. With the simple step of changing the browser for test case execution, Selenium enables easy and efficient running of the same test cases across multiple browsers, making it a convenient option for automated testing.


LambdaTest LambdaTest is a cloud-based solution enabling users to conduct automated and manual compatibility testing for their websites or web applications across over 2000 browsers and operating systems.


BrowserStack is a web and mobile testing platform that operates on the cloud, allowing users to test applications on various browsers, operating systems, and real mobile devices on demand.


Browserling offers a live and interactive testing service that allows web developers and designers to test their websites across various browsers and operating systems easily. With quick access to popular browsers and operating systems, Browserling simplifies the testing process for web developers and designers.


HeadSpin enables users to conduct cross-browser tests on real devices in the cloud, allowing them to test the responsiveness of their mobile applications or websites remotely. Additionally, users can perform performance tests, such as load testing, on authentic environments, ensuring highly accurate results.

Other notable tools include:

  • Virtuoso
  • TestGrid
  • Browsershots
  • SauceLabs


Cross-browser compatibility testing is essential to ensure a website functions correctly and looks visually appealing across all platforms. 

By understanding the differences between web browsers, defining the scope of the test, using automated testing tools, testing on real devices, testing throughout the development process, focusing on user experience, and testing with real users, website developers can ensure that their website is compatible with all web browsers and provides a positive user experience.


Which are the best techniques for cross-browser compatibility?

Some of the best techniques for cross-browser compatibility include:

  • HTML or XHTML validation
  • Page validation
  • Ajax or JQuery functionality
  • Font size validation and more

How do I ensure cross-browser compatibility?

You can ensure cross-browser compatibility using the following ways:

  • Validate your HTML and CSS code using Jigsaw CSS validator and CSS Lint.
  • Maintain Layout Compatibility 
  • Make use of CSS Resets

What is an example of browser compatibility?

A good example of browser compatibility is a mobile phone on Android displaying websites on Chrome browser differently from an iPhone on Safari browser.

What is the key reason for checking cross-browser compatibility?

Cross-browser testing helps you to identify browser-specific compatibility errors so you can debug them right away. Most importantly, it makes sure that you’re not excluding any part of your target audience just because your website does not work well on their browser.

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By Apr 24, 2023
Twelve Full Stack Project Ideas for 2023
For Developers

Twelve Full Stack Project Ideas for 2023

12 full stack project ideas to try out in 2023: 1. Reward-based online crowdfunding platform 2. E-commerce website 3. Food delivery app 4. Social media app

Looking for full stack project ideas? You’ve come to the right place. As you know, a full stack developer designs and constructs an end-to-end program by independently handling codes, databases, servers, and platforms. That’s why full stack developers are crucial to the success of any company’s project. Naturally, full stack developer jobs are in great demand. 

If you want to learn full-stack efficiently and showcase your skills, you need add some great full-stack projects to your portfolio. In this post, you will find twelve interesting full stack project development ideas for developers. But before that, let us cover the basics of full-stack development.

Table of Contents

  1. What is full stack project development?
  2. Full stack development project ideas
  3. Why is full stack development important in 2023?
  4. Conclusion
  5. FAQs

What is full stack project development?

Full stack project development is the process of creating a web application’s front end (client-side) and back end (server-side). Full-stack projects can be web, mobile, or native application projects depending on the solution stack.

The process of full stack project development typically involves several stages, including project planning, design, implementation, testing, and deployment. Full stack developers must have a broad range of technical skills and expertise in various technologies, as well as the ability to collaborate with other developers and stakeholders throughout the development process.

Some of the key responsibilities of a full stack developer in a full stack project development include:

Key responsibilities of a full stack developer

Key responsibilities of a full stack developer

  • Designing and developing the user interface and user experience of the application
  • Building and maintaining the server-side logic of the application
  • Managing the database and data storage of the application
  • Writing and testing code for the application
  • Integrating third-party APIs and services as needed
  • Ensuring the security and scalability of the application
  • Collaborating with other developers and stakeholders throughout the development process.

Skills to test in full stack projects:

Skills to test in full stack projects

Skills to test in full stack projects

  • Front-end programming languages: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, etc.
  • Front-end programming frameworks: AngularJS, ReactJS, Materialize, Bootstrap, jQuery, SASS, Semantic-UI, ExpressJS, BackboneJS, etc.
  • Back-end programming languages: PHP, C++, Java, Python, etc. 
  • Back-end programming frameworks: NodeJS, Django, Express, Laravel, Ruby on Rails, Spring, etc.
  • Database: Oracle, MongoDB, MySQL, etc. 

Also, read: 8 Front-End Tools for 2023

Full stack project ideas for 2023

12 full stack project ideas in 2023

12 full stack project ideas in 2023


Full stack projects can range from beginner to advanced levels. Some of the beginner-level full stack projects can be to-do list applications, blogging platforms, weather apps, etc. Some of the advanced full stack projects can be e-commerce platforms, real-time collaborative editing tools, AR applications, etc. 

Let’s take a look at the best full stack project ideas that can be made in 2023.

  1. Reward-based online crowdfunding platform

    If you’re looking for full stack project ideas, a crowdfunding platform that allows people to invest in technology, creative works, and community-driven projects can be a great option. People put money into a system to support projects in exchange for benefits or rewards, such as discounts, coupons, and more.

    For example, a jewelry designer might provide an original handmade bracelet to everyone who donates $100.

    Simply put, a crowdfunding platform helps entrepreneurs outline their project or business idea and fundraising objective.

    With the front-end development, developers ensure that crowdfunding platforms have an appealing dashboard, friendly interface, and responsive chatbox. Similarly, they manage user information and website data with back-end development. This can be one of the great advanced full stack development projects.

    Popular crowdfunding platforms: Compassion, Canada Helps, Indiegogo, FundRazr, etc.
  2. E-commerce website

    E-commerce websites full stack development projects require significant backend programming. This makes them one of the most sought-after advanced full stack projects.

    For example, managing shopping carts requires a volume of data manipulation throughout a visitor’s visit. APIs connect e-commerce sites to banking systems like PayPal and RazorPay, allowing consumers to link their payment information and transact securely.

    On the other hand, developers use front-end development to present products and services to attract customers and ensure that the site is easily navigable.

    Popular e-commerce platforms: Amazon, eBay, Walmart, Etsy, Craigslist, etc.
  3. Food delivery app

    Next on the list of project ideas for full stack development are food delivery apps. Food delivery applications have grown in popularity in recent years. These apps offer a range of features, such as grocery shopping, meal planning, recipes, and food deliveries.

    With the help of front-end development, food delivery applications ensure that restaurants and food orders look appetizing with fine-tuned visuals. Similarly, food delivery apps maintain user data and app responsiveness with back-end development.

    Popular food delivery apps: Grubhub, Doordash, Postmates, Uber Eats, etc.
  4. Social media app

    Another great full stack project example is a social media app. These apps allow people to communicate online and can be one of the best project ideas for full stack development. Using both front-end and back-end, developers can build an app to upload, view, and share content.

    Allowing users to scroll through different media and text blocks requires significant front-end coding. Similarly, storing interactive data of millions necessitates detailed backend coding. Social media app idea is one of the advanced full stack projects that developers can work on in 2023.

    Popular social media apps: Facebook, Instagram, Tik Tok, LinkedIn, etc.
  5. Tutorial app or website

    We cannot miss out on tutorial apps when talking about projects for full stack developers. The past few years have seen a growth in online classes in the form of recorded resources, and other online sessions.

    You can create a tutorial app using full stack development. For this, you’ll require front end technologies such as React, Redux, HTML/CSS, and back end technologies such as Node.js, Express, or MongoDB. You can create an authentication module in your tutorial app using JWT.

    For creating a discussion forum, you can use You can create a tutorial app that can contain content ranging from school-level to specialized professional domains. You have the option to keep the content paid or free.

    Overall, creating a tutorial app is a great way to explore your full stack development projects’ potential and create something that can add value to people’s lives.

    Some popular tutorial apps are Udemy, Codeacademy, Coursera, Pluralsight, etc.
  6. Chat messaging app

    Being a popular full stack developer project, a chat messaging software enables the exchange of messages among individuals or in a group. Chat messaging apps aren’t very complicated. However, sending and receiving messages and saving them for future reference necessitates both frontend and backend development work. You will have to add the following features to your chat messaging app:
    • User registration and login 
    • Private messaging option between the users of your app
    • Allow users to create a group to enable multiple users chat together in real time
    • Ability to send and receive media such as photos, videos or documents
    • End-to-end encryption to ensure that the messaging is secured
    • Indicators such as read receipts, received receipts to know the status of the message
    • Push notification alerts for messages

      Popular chat messaging apps: Whatsapp, Snapchat, Viber, Telegram, Line, WeChat, etc.
  7. Gaming app

    If you’re looking for advanced full stack projects, you can always build a gaming app. You will have to ensure some general features in a gaming app such as the use of registration and login process, Multiplayer functionality to allow users to play with others in real-time, In-game chat functionality to enable players to communicate with each other during gameplay, leaderboards, virtual currency, etc. The stack that you will be required to have is:

    Front end: React, Redux, HTML/CSS
    Back end: Node.js, Express, MongoDB
    Authentication: JWT
    Virtual currency: Payment gateway integration

    You will have to plan out the flow of your game and start building using the back end technologies mentioned above. A gaming app is a fun way to engage users and bring them together to form a community. It will also be a great way to polish your skills as a full stack developer.

    Popular gaming apps: Fortnite, Minecraft, League of Legends, World of Warcraft, Among Us, etc.
  8. Content management system

    Next on the list of full stack project ideas, we have CMS. A content management system (CMS) is a handy tool for managing and strategizing information for corporate customers. Creating and modifying content, reporting and analyzing content performance, maintaining security standards, and role-based administration are the essential aspects of a CMS.

    This software is more challenging to develop than a regular messaging app. And so if you’re a beginner, you can avoid starting off with this advanced full stack project. A senior developer will be more suitable for this test instead. Look for a developer who can ensure that the CMS’s user interface is accessible and well-organized and that the data used in content management is secure and viable.
    Popular content management systems: WordPress, Wix, Squarespace, Weebly, etc.
  9. Data analytics app or website

    Data analytics jobs are in great demand today. In a data-driven world, a data analytics app can be one of the great advanced full stack projects, to begin with. It becomes really difficult to keep a track of tons of data and you can create an application that can be used to store and track data.

    You can start by building the back end using technologies like Node.js, MongoDB, or PostgreSQL. For the front end, you can use React, Redux, or HTML/CSS. For data visualization, you will have to use D3.js or Chart.js.

    You app should have the following features and abilities in order to be useful:

    • Ability to visualize data in various formats such as charts, graphs, and tables
    • Ability to save or share reports and dashboards with other app users
    • Integration with third-party services such as Google Analytics or Facebook Ads
    • Ability to connect to various data sources such as CSV files or databases.

      Popular Data Analytics apps: Tableau, Power BI, Mixpanel, etc.
  10. Workout tracker

    Another great full stack developer project is a workout tracker. These days, workout monitors are much more than just a pedometer. These monitors store heart rates, sleep cycles, and several other activities. They also provide performance analysis of these activities over time.

    In this full-stack project, the backend development takes care of functionalities and data management, and front end development is responsible for app UI and data representation. You should include features like progress tracking, workout training, exercise library, workout plans, social features, notifications, etc in your workout tracker app to make it more usable for the users.

    Popular workout tracker apps: Strava, FitBit track, Freeletics, Seven, JEFIT, Openfit, etc.
  11. Project management app

    One of the most popular full stack project examples is a project management app. As the name suggests, this allows teams to manage projects of different scales effectively. Teams can avoid wasting time on repetitive tasks with a project management app. They can focus on strategic project needs.

    Project management tools use both frontend and backend programming extensively. Frontend creates an attractive dashboard, responsive pages, and user-friendly reports. On the other hand,  the backend takes care of API integrations, data management, connectivity, geo-map tagging, and more.

    Popular project management apps: Trello, Jira, Asana, ClickUp, Wrike, Airtable, GoodDay, etc.
  12. Video Conferencing app or website

    Due to the hybrid or remote work being adopted on a large scale, video conferencing apps and websites such as Zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams, etc. have become a major part of our lives.

    If you are looking for an advanced full-stack development project, a video conferencing app can be a great project to start in 2023. It is a challenging project that will require a wide range of technologies and features to create a comprehensive and user-friendly platform.

    For front end, you can use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, React, Bootstrap or Material UI. For back end, you can use Node.js or Express. For the database, you can use MongoDB or PostgreSQL. And for deployment, you can use AWS. You app or website should be able to support the following features:

    • Video and audio conferencing with multiple participants
    • Screen sharing and file sharing capabilities
    • Secure user authentication and data encryption
    • Recording and playback capabilities

      Popular video conferencing apps or website: Skype, Zoom, Google Meet, etc.

Why is full stack development important in 2023?

You should definitely learn full stack development in 2023 as the demand for full stack developers in increasing across the globe. Here are the reasons why full stack development is important in 2023: 

  • Increased efficiency: Full stack development increases the efficiency of the development process. It allows developers to work on both the front-end and back-end of a project. Developers can easily switch between different parts of the project, making it easier to troubleshoot issues and make updates.
  • Better communication: Full stack development promotes better communication and collaboration between the front end and back end developers as the full stack developers have the understanding for both. This can lead to better collaboration and a more cohesive development team.
  • Better flexibility and adaptability: Full stack developers are versatile and can adapt to changing requirements or technologies. They can easily switch between different programming languages and frameworks, which makes them more flexible and adaptable in the ever-changing tech industry.
  • Increased cost-effectiveness: Hiring a full stack developer who can handle the entire development process can be more cost-effective for companies than hiring multiple developers for different areas. This can save companies time and money, especially for smaller projects.


Full-stack project development is an great choice for today’s ever-changing and competitive environment. Remember, the full stack project ideas mentioned above is not exhaustive. These projects are popular as their source codes are available out there. There are a lot more full stack projects you can work on. Keep trying out new ideas to hone your full stack development skills.


  1. Can I learn full stack in three months?

    Learning full stack development in just three months can be a challenging task and will require dedication and hard work. You will have to learn front end and back end technologies including programming languages, frameworks, and libraries.
  2. Which full stack is the best?

    There is no one “best” full stack for software development. Different stacks are suited for different types of projects, teams, and development environments.

    Some popular full stacks include the MEAN stack (MongoDB, Express.js, AngularJS, Node.js), the MERN stack (MongoDB, Express.js, React, Node.js), the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP), and the Django stack (Python, Django, SQLite, JavaScript). Each of these stacks has its pros and cons. The best full stack for you depends on the specific requirements of your project, the preferences and skillsets of your development team, and other factors such as performance, scalability, and ease of maintenance.
  3. Which language is the best for full stack developer?

    You should learn languages such as Python, JavaScript, HTML, CSS, SQL, Rust, Java, etc. to be a good ful stack developer.
  4. What skills are required for full stack development?

    Full stack development requires knowledge of front-end development technologies such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and front-end frameworks, as well as back-end development technologies such as databases, server-side programming languages, and back-end frameworks. Knowledge of DevOps, version control, and project management tools may also be necessary.
  5. What is an example of full stack development project?

    A good example of a full stack development project is a chat messaging app. Other examples can be project management app, video conferencing app, gaming app, etc. 
  6. What can I build as a full stack developer?

    As a full stack developer, you have a wide range of project ideas that you can work on. You can choose from an e-commerce website, social media platform, blogging platform, food ordering app, grocery ordering app, and much more as your next full-stack development project.
  7. What are some good project ideas for full stack development?

    Some good project ideas for full stack development include building a social media platform, an e-commerce website, a task management application, a blogging platform, a real-time chat application, a music streaming service, a job board, a food ordering and delivery service, and a travel booking platform.
  8. What are some popular full stack development frameworks?

    Some popular full stack development frameworks include Node.js, AngularJS, ReactJS, Django, Ruby on Rails, and Laravel.

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By , Apr 24, 2023
What is Software Quality Assurance (1)
For Employers

What Is Software Quality Assurance, and Why Is It Important?

This post sheds light on the basics of software quality assurance, why it’s important, the different approaches to software QA, and how IT differs from software testing.

Software quality assurance plays a vital role in the software development life cycle. Enterprises are constantly churning out software applications left, right, and center to keep up with the increasing demand. While releasing software applications is one thing, it’s crucial to ensure that the product works the way you want it to. 

People are not just looking for a wide selection of software choices; they also want quality products. In this post, we’ll understand what is software quality assurance, its principles, ways to implement SQA, the different SQA approaches, the importance of SQA, and how it differs from software testing and quality control. So, let’s dive in!

Table of Contents

What is software quality assurance? 

Software quality assurance (SQA) is a methodology to ensure that the quality of the software product complies with a predetermined set of standards.

What is the purpose of software quality assurance? SQA is not just a step in the development process; it functions in parallel with the software development life cycle. Businesses must ascertain that every part of the software, internal and external, is up to the predefined standard. SQA tests every block of this process individually to identify issues before they become major problems. 

  • Externally, businesses evaluate efficiency, reliability, and cost of maintenance.
  • Internal characteristics tested by software QA processes include structure, complexity, readability, flexibility, testability, and the coding practices developers have followed to develop the software.

What are the principles of software quality assurance?

Principles of Software Quality Assurance

Principles of Software Quality Assurance

Now that we’ve covered the basics of software quality assurance, let’s look at the principles. If you want to implement software quality assurance effectively, you must follow certain principles. These principles not only ensure that SQA is conducted efficiently but also see to it that your software product meets the best quality standards. 

Let’s look at the key principles one by one.

  1. Defect prevention: It is always better to prevent defects and errors in the software product than to correct them later. And so, the first principle of SQA emphasizes the importance of identifying and addressing potential issues early in the software development lifecycle. Unlike quality control, SQA focuses on fixing the root cause of defects and errors, and not just the symptoms. 
  2. Continuous improvement: Here’s the thing: SQA is not a one-time thing. It is more like an ongoing process you need to integrate into your software development lifecycle. In other words, the second principle, i.e., continuous improvement underlines the need to consistently monitor and improve the quality of the software product.
  3. Stakeholder involvement: SQA must involve all stakeholders in the software development process, including customers, developers, testers, QA team leads, and project managers. And thus, this third principle talks about the importance of collaboration and communication between the involved parties to ensure a smooth software development process.
  4. Risk-based approach: Last but not least, SQA must focus on identifying and addressing the most significant risks in the software product. Simply put, this principle emphasizes the importance of prioritizing risks based on their potential impact on the software product.

How to implement software quality assurance? 

How to implement software quality assurance

How to implement software quality assurance

To implement SQA effectively, it is essential to follow a structured approach. You can follow the below-mentioned steps to implement SQA:

  1. Define quality standards: Clearly define the quality standards that your software product must meet. This includes defining requirements, acceptance criteria, and performance metrics. These standards should be agreed upon by all stakeholders, including the development team, management, and customers.
  2. Plan SQA activities: Develop a plan for the SQA activities that will be performed throughout the software development life cycle. This plan should include reviews, testing, and documentation activities. It should also specify who will be responsible for each activity and when it will be performed.
  3. Conduct reviews: Conduct reviews of software artifacts such as requirements, design documents, and code. These reviews should be conducted by a team of experts who are not directly involved in the development process. This will help identify defects early in the development process and reduce the cost of fixing them later.
  4. Perform testing: Perform different types of testing such as unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing. Use automated testing tools to increase efficiency and reduce the risk of human error.
  5. Monitor and measure: Monitor and measure the quality of the software product throughout the development process. This includes tracking defects, analyzing metrics such as code coverage and defect density, and conducting root cause analysis.
  6. Improve continuously: Continuously improve the SQA process by analyzing the results of the monitoring and measuring activities. Use this data to identify areas for improvement and implement changes to the SQA process.

What are the different software quality assurance approaches?

We have divided this section into parts based on the approaches to software quality assurance. 

Part 1: From a broader perspective, there are two different approaches to software QA:

  1. Software quality defect management approach
    The software quality defect management approach focuses on counting and managing defects. The level of severity can generally categorize defects. Software development teams use tools like defect leakage matrices and clear and concise control charts to measure and enhance the capability of their software development process. 
  2. Software quality attributes approach
    The software quality attributes approach works by helping software engineers analyze the performance of a software product. This approach focuses on directing the engineer’s attention to several quality factors. While some of these attributes may overlap or fall under another, there are five essential quality characteristics that you should consider:
  3. Reliability. Reliability reflects the system’s ability to continue operating overtime under different working environments and conditions. The application should consistently return correct results.  
  4. Usability. Software applications should be easy to learn and navigate. This user-friendliness and effectiveness of utilizing the product are called usability.
  5. Efficiency. This software QA attribute indicates how well the system uses all the available resources. It is shown by the amount of time the system needs to finish any task.
  6. Maintainability. It shows how easy it is to maintain different system versions and support changes and upgrades cost-effectively.
  7. Portability. This software quality assurance attribute demonstrates the system’s ability to run effectively on various platforms — for example, data portability, viewing, hosting, and more.

Part 2: In addition to the ones mentioned above, there are different approaches to SQA that organizations can use based on the type of their software development process. 

  1. Traditional approach: The traditional approach, also known as the Waterfall mode, includes a sequential process where each phase of the software development lifecycle is completed before moving on to the next phase. Similarly, SQA is performed at the end of each phase to ensure that the requirements have been met before moving to the next phase. This approach involves requirement analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance to ensure that the software product is developed with minimal errors and defects and meets the desired quality standards.
  2. Agile approach: The Agile approach to SQA is an iterative, incremental, and flexible approach that focuses on delivering software products in small increments. This approach emphasizes collaboration between the development team and the stakeholders for a seamless and quick development process. Agile SQA is quite popular and focuses on self-organizing teams, continuous integration and testing, continuous delivery, and continuous feedback to ensure a high-quality software product.
  3. DevOps approach: Next is the DevOps approach. This is basically a combination of development and IT operations to ensure that the software product meets the requirements of the customers. This approach emphasizes collaboration, automation, and continuous delivery to deliver the software product quickly and efficiently. Just like Agile, DevOps best practices comprise continuous integration, continuous testing, and continuous deployment to deliver a high-quality product. This approach is great for projects that require frequent updates.
  4. Six Sigma approach: This is a data-driven approach that focuses on reducing defects and errors in the software product. The approach uses statistical tools and techniques to measure and improve the quality of the software product. It is suitable for projects that prioritize reducing defects and errors.
  5. Lean approach: This is an approach that focuses on efficiency and waste reduction in the software development process. It emphasizes continuous improvement and the elimination of non-value-added activities. It is suitable for projects that require a focus on efficiency and waste reduction.
  6. Continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) approach: This is an approach that focuses on continuous integration and deployment of software products. The CI/CD approach emphasizes automation, continuous testing, and continuous delivery of software products. It is suitable for projects that require continuous integration and deployment.
  7. Test-driven development (TDD) approach: This approach involves writing automated tests before writing the code to ensure that the code meets the requirements and specifications of the software product. TDD SQA involves various activities, such as writing unit tests, running the tests, and refactoring the code, to ensure that the software product is of high quality.
  8. Risk-based approach: Last but not least, the risk-based approach to SQA involves identifying and managing the risks associated with the software product. This approach is made up of risk assessment, risk mitigation, and risk monitoring to ensure that the software product meets the established standards. 

In conclusion, there are different approaches to software quality assurance that organizations can use to ensure that their software products meet the highest quality standards. The choice of approach depends on the organization’s goals, requirements, and resources. 

What is the importance of software quality assurance?

Why is Software Quality Assurance important

Why is Software Quality Assurance important?

The importance of SQA in software engineering can be divided into the following:

  1. Ensures a high-quality software product: Software quality assurance ensures that the software meets the specified quality standards and requirements. This results in software that is more reliable, efficient, and user-friendly.
  2. Saves time and money: SQA ensures that the developers find bugs and errors at the early stages of software development. Therefore, they spend a lot less time and money fixing them. 
  3. Builds a stable and competitive software product: Software architects specifically vet each block in the software development process against industry standards. Granular testing for different requirements like reliability, functionality, usability, portability, etc., helps ensure that their product is high-quality.
  4. Protects your company’s reputation: Businesses need to ensure that their product works as intended before releasing it into the market. If the customers notice the product’s errors before you do, it will significantly impact your brand image and reputation.
  5. Ensures security and compliance: Software quality assurance helps organizations ensure that their application is efficient, secure, and trustworthy. Most importantly, it helps them meet regulatory and industry-specific compliance requirements, such as those related to security and data privacy.
  6. Ensures customer satisfaction: Your software application has to fulfill all the needs to satisfy the customers. It has to work smoothly without any malfunctions. With software quality assurance processes in place, you can ensure that your product delivers everything that your audience expects.

Thus, the importance of software quality assurance cannot be underestimated. Conducting a thorough SQA is a vital step for launching a successful software product.

What is the difference between quality assurance and quality control?

Quality control and quality assurance are two important concepts in software development that are often confused with each other. Both these concepts are related to the quality of software products but differ in their approach and objectives. 

Below, we have listed the key differences between quality assurance and quality control in software development.

Difference between quality assurance and quality control (1)

Difference between quality assurance and quality control

Final thoughts 

The role of software quality assurance in software engineering is to ensure that software products and systems are developed and maintained to meet the required quality standards and functional requirements. SQA is a critical component of the software development life cycle (SDLC) that involves continuous monitoring and improvement of software development processes to identify and eliminate defects and errors in the software product. SQA is a great way for businesses to ensure that they have tested every part of their product to the highest standards before releasing it into the market. 

If you’re a business looking to launch a great software product, you cannot possibly undermine the importance of SQA. 

But before you start with software quality assurance, you need to hire developers who can help you build a product in the first place. With Turing, you can hire pre-vetted, highly skilled, and experienced software developers at excellent prices. The best part? You get a 14-day no-risk trial. If you decide to stop within two weeks, you pay nothing. 


  1. What is software quality?
    Software quality is the study and practice that highlights the desirable and favorable attributes of a given software product. The two primary approaches to software quality are 1. defect management and 2. quality attributes.
  2. What are the three definitions of software quality?
    The three primary aspects of software quality are functional quality, structural quality, and process quality.
  3. What are the main software quality characteristics?
    Six of the most important quality characteristics are maintainability, correctness, reusability, reliability, portability, and efficiency.

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By , Apr 20, 2023
Procure the Right People Trusting AI Vetting for Software Engineers
For Employers

Procure the Right People: Trusting AI Vetting for Software Engineers

Procure the right people with Turing’s AI-powered vetting process that uses a structured approach to source, vet, and manage world-class developers.

Great employees are the foundation of successful companies. But great talent is hard to come by. McKinsey’s Steven Hankin coined the term “war for talent” in 1997, and it continues to be true today. The competition has only gotten fiercer over the years, and while the recessionary conditions over the last year may suggest a surplus of talent in the market, getting the right talent is still difficult. A survey by Manpower Group* reveals that in 2023 nearly 4 out of 5 employers face difficulty in finding the right talent.  

Hiring the right talent is hard

Finding the right people that not only pass your coding challenge but also match your company’s core values is not easy. Here are a few reasons why: 

  1. Unhelpful resumes: Most often, the resume is the first interface between the company and the potential employee. However, these resumes may lack the information or may even carry inaccurate information about the technical and soft skills of the candidate. Given these inconsistencies, hiring managers and talent specialists end up wasting precious hours going over hundreds (sometimes even thousands) of resumes. 
  2. Job requirements: A job description is an important tool in finding and onboarding the right talent. However, what a hiring manager has in their head may not be translated well into the job description, leading to disconnects and inefficiency in the hiring process. 
  3. Assessment process: Most hiring managers rely on interviews as the final part of the selection process. However, random or unstructured interviews can lead to random results that are a sheer waste of time. 

The problem with job interviews

A research reveals that most job interviews are broken or useless. They often follow an unstructured approach that allows candidates to ease into the process and highlight their strengths. Such interviews lean on questions such as “What’s your greatest strength/weakness?” and rarely produce genuine or relevant responses. What’s more, candidates preparing for interviews tend to ace such clichéd questions. 

A New York Times article* suggests that employers are better off asking behavioral and technical interview questions to prospective candidates. Questions that elicit past behavior tend to portend future behavior more accurately.

Another article suggests that having a more structured approach with the same set of questions for all candidates can improve the reliability of interviews and enhance prospects of job success. 

Is there a solution?

Turing experts believe that having a system that collects proper representation and information on the following three fronts can help find the right candidate.

  1. Accurate qualifications and competencies of job seekers
  2. Actual job requirements aligned with reasonable expectations
  3. Valid and reliable assessment of the fit between the job and the candidate

A limited or regional talent pool can increase the difficulty of finding the right talent in a fast and cost-efficient manner. This is why Turing built an AI-powered platform that uses 20,000+ ML data signals to source, vet, and manage world-class developers. Following a structured approach, AI supports Turing’s vetting process and is Turing’s solution to the hiring conundrum.

How does Turing’s innovation help in hiring?

Turing’s AI-based vetting system is meticulously designed and thorough in its process and delivers reliable results. In this video, Turing’s CEO Jonathan Siddharth explains how Turing uses AI to evaluate developers. Here’s a look at Turing’s vetting process:

  1. Create a global talent pool

    Procure the right people: Create a global talent pool

    Create a global talent pool

    Turing’s platform has a global talent pool of 2M+ software professionals and is continuously growing. Highly qualified and experienced software professionals are joining Turing because they love our model. We offer opportunities with 400+ companies including leading brands.

    Since most of our client engagements are for long-term projects with a minimum duration of 3 months, software professionals see the opportunity for career growth. Most importantly, professionals love that they only have to be vetted once per skill for a lifetime of opportunities.
  2. Data-driven structured competency vetting

    Procure the right people: Data-driven structured competency vetting

    Data-driven structured competency vetting

    Turing uses 20,000+ ML data signals to source and vets the developers across 100+ skills. 
  3. Deep developer profile

    Procure the right people: Deep developer profile

    Deep developer profile

    Based on the results of the vetting, Turing creates a deep developer profile for every candidate. This profile offers the client an in-depth understanding of the skills and competencies of the developer.
  4. Data-driven real-time feedback

    Procure the right people: Data-driven real-time feedback

    Data-driven real-time feedback

    When customers update their job requirements on Turing’s platform, our system generates real-time feedback based on our vast global talent pool.
  5. AI-matching with the right talent

    Procure the right people: AI-matching with the right talent

    AI-matching with the right talent

    Turing’s Talent Cloud uses AI to match the right talent with the given job description. Our AI model is so thorough that we can fill the position in just 4 days.

  6. Hire only on the condition of successful post-hire performance

    Hire only on the condition of successful post-hire performance

    Hire only on the condition of successful post-hire performance

    While a candidate may do very well on the coding challenge and the technical interview, it’s difficult to assess whether they’ll perform well under pressure on the specific project a client is hiring for.

    Turing eliminates this issue with our 2-week, risk-free trial offer. If the company isn’t impressed with the Turing developer’s work within the first 2 weeks, they pay nothing—Turing will pay the developer for those 2 weeks instead. However, this situation rarely arises as Turing’s vetting process is rigorous and the talent quality is very high, which is reflected in our 97% retention rate. 

But why should you trust Turing’s AI vetting?

The following competencies are required to succeed in a job:

Soft skills: Communication, collaboration, remote work
Technical skills: Understanding of technical concepts, coding, and practical skills to solve technical problems

Turing’s AI vetting process uses progressive assessment determined by two main vectors:

  • Role types: Front-end engineer, Back-end engineer, etc.
  • Dominant tech stack: React, Node, Python, Java, etc. 

Further, our AI vetting is split into four stages: 

  • Stage 1: At this stage, our AI system tests the basic knowledge concepts associated with the role type and dominant tech stack. Our system has automated knowledge tests for languages and technologies. 
    • Code traversing assesses the outcome of a particular code block.
    • Knowledge or concept associated with the particular language or technology is tested.
    • The system asks solution-based questions.
    • There is a dynamic score based on the difficulty level of the question, thereby helping assess the quality of the candidate more accurately.  
    • There are 150+ automated tests for 10+ roles.

  • Stage 2: After passing stage 1, a candidate must pass the coding challenge associated with their specific tech stack. The automated coding challenge assesses the use of 
    • Algorithms
    • Data structures
    • Best practices (efficiency and performance)

      The candidate’s performance during this stage is recorded to see their practical skills such as testing and debugging, deploying code, and working with APIs. 
  • Stage 3: Apart from the technical skills, our system also has structured questions that assess the candidate’s soft skills. This ensures that the candidate’s core values and people skills match those needed for the job. 

  • Stage 4: Finally, our AI vetting system matches the job requirements analysis with the candidate’s skills to ensure a perfect match.

However, Turing’s vetting process does not end with automated vetting. We also conduct face-to-face structured interviews as a mechanism to validate our assessments and augment the vetting signals when needed. Our experts assess the soft skills, communication, and remote work readiness of the candidate, with special attention paid to assessing spoken English and technical communication skills. Finally, there is a work experience assessment to ensure that the candidate is a great fit for the job role. 

AI drives Turing’s success in vetting and matching candidates. Our scalable and reliable ML platform is built on Vertex AI. 

  • Developers: 
    • Funnel optimization ensures high-quality developers for matching
    • The vetting engine gathers signals for developers’ proficiency
    • Automated fraud detection ensures quality and trust 
  • Customers:
    • Lead scoring helps optimize marketing and ad spends
    • Model lifetime value for long-term growth
    • Dynamic demand and supply forecasting
  • Matching:
    • Search and recommender system to match developers with jobs
    • Ranking algorithms and interview success predictions
    • LLM/NLP for jobs and resume language understanding

Turing’s AI system has developed a virtuous cycle that helps it glean learnings from data and improve its process continuously. This means that you benefit even when your competitor hires with us. We constantly recalibrate our vetting by incorporating post-hire performance feedback. We test and evaluate everything to refresh and revise content whenever needed. 

Turing’s structured and rigorous approach to its AI-supported vetting model has earned the trust and confidence of 400+ companies including leading brands like Johnson & Johnson, Pepsi, Disney, and Dell. Entrust your hiring mandate to Turing’s AI-powered Talent Cloud and reap the benefits.

*Read the Manpower Group survey.

*Read the New York Times article.

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By Apr 20, 2023
Top 10 React UI Frameworks for Developers in 2023 (1)
For Developers

Top 16 React UI Frameworks to Build Applications

The top 10 React frameworks for developers are: 1. React Bootstrap 2. React Redux 3. Material UI 4. Ant Design 5. Chakra UI 6. Grommet 7. Semantic UI 8. Fluent UI

What is React? Which React UI framework is the best? Which React-based frameworks should you choose for your projects? In this blog post, we will look at the best React UI frameworks, keep reading this post.

Designing interactive websites requires front-end coding, which controls how user interfaces appear. Front-end development requires JavaScript tools to manage the visual aspect of the web pages. As a front-end JavaScript library, React is one of the most popular tools for web development.

Table of Contents

  1. What is React?
  2. What are React UI frameworks?
  3. Top 16 React UI frameworks
  4. Benefits of React UI frameworks
  5. Selecting the best React UI frameworks for your projects
  6. Which frameworks should developers use to develop user interfaces for applications?
  7. How does React’s virtual DOM improve performance?
  8. How does React differ from other popular JavaScript libraries for building UIs such as Angular or Vue.js?
  9. FAQs

What is React?

React or ReactJS is a free and open-source JavaScript library. Front-end developers use React to build user interfaces (UI). The JavaScript library contains UI components that develop the visual elements of a website.

Developers use React to create a single page and native mobile applications. React code affects the state management of the web page. The React library uses a declarative programming paradigm. Due to this, the state of the web page changes when data changes occur. Check out this React JS guide to know more about the library.

As per a recent Stackoverflow survey, React is the second most used web framework with 42 percent of respondents opting for it. Similarly, when React JS landed in the sixth position when it came to the most-loved frameworks.

React is highly popular on GitHub too with a total of 205k stars. What’s more, major companies like Instagram, Netflix, Reddit, Salesforce, and others favor it over other frameworks.

Also, read: Top 25 React JS Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

React vs other frameworks

React vs other frameworks

What are React UI frameworks? 

React UI frameworks are libraries or collections of pre-built components that developers can use to quickly build user interfaces (UIs) for their React-based applications. These React-based frameworks typically provide a wide range of pre-built components such as buttons, forms, tables, and navigation menus that developers can use to quickly build UI for their applications. They also often provide design guidelines and a consistent look and feel to make it easier for developers to create visually pleasing UIs.

Let’s take a look at the best React frameworks now.

Here are the top 16 React UI frameworks for developers in 2023.

Top 16 React UI frameworks

Top 16 React UI frameworks

  1. Material Kit React – GitHub stars: 5.8k | Forks: 958

    When talking about the best UI framework for React, one cannot overlook Material Kit. Inspired by Google’s Material Design, Material Kit builds a group of elements that give consistency as the primary feature. This feature enables you to maintain a similarity of appearance and functions in your project throughout. The layout is like that of multiple sheets of paper, giving it depth and order. 

    The Kit also includes several basic elements like sliders and buttons, badges, pagination, bars for navigation, menu, pills, and tabs among others. With the help of this React component library, you can customize the style, size, and color of most elements.

    The JavaScript elements have modals, date-time pickers, tooltips, popovers, and carousels. You can not only use the Kit to start a new project but also restyle any old Bootstrap project. What’s more, the Material Kit React Pro version comes equipped with several other components, sections, and example pages.

    Features and benefits:

    • Grants access to the theme values from the component props
    • Open source, extremely fast, and high-quality
    • Less than KB gzipped
    • Developer-first product with a solid community
    • Supports several variables
    • Good UI consistency with an effortless and responsive layout
    • Follows code standards
    • MIT license
  2. Storybook – GitHub stars: 77.8k | Forks: 8.3k

    Another special mention on our React JS framework list is Storybook. Storybook has been popular among developers for a long time now. This is not a component library itself. It is more like an open-source tool that is used for building UI components in isolation for React and several other platforms and technologies.

    What’s unique about Storybook? It enables you to work on a single component at a given time, making the development process a lot faster.

    As one of the best UI frameworks for React, Storybook enables you to document components for reuse. It also allows you to automatically test your components visually in order to prevent bugs. Last but not least, an ecosystem of add-ons allows you to fine-tune responsive layouts, verify accessibility, and much more.

    Features and benefits:

    • Fast UI development
    • Easy and smooth integration with React apps
    • Comes with builtin TypeScript support
    • Default webpack configuration
    • Efficient development process
    • High compatibility with most front-end frameworks
    • CSS support
    • Hot module reloading
    • Deployment of a whole storybook as a static app
    • Isolated environment for components
    • Clean and efficient UI
  3. React Bootstrap – GitHub stars: 21.6k | Forks: 3.5k

    Next on the list of best React UI frameworks is React Bootstrap, one of the oldest React UI libraries. If you are looking for a front-end React UI framework, you can definitely pick React Bootstrap.

    This UI kit holds on to its Bootstrap core but switches Bootstrap’s JavaScript with React. This switch gives you more control over the function as well as the form of every component. Every component is accessible, important for building front-end frameworks.

    A significant feature of React Bootstrap CSS is compatibility, i.e., Bootstrap core compatibility and the world’s largest UI ecosystem compatibility. The framework has great compatibility with the hundreds of Bootstrap themes used by developers around the world.

    The React Bootstrap eliminates the need for Bootstrap.js and jQuery dependencies in the code. React developers can even import individual components from the library. This feature results in faster development, shorter time to code, less code, better stability, and efficient code management,

    This UI framework allows you to build your projects on the backend and then finally prototype them on the front end. And so, React Bootstrap can be a great pick for developers working on multiple aspects of apps. However, backend developers may not like the layout of the interface. This is because the use of reducers and actions replicates a front-end environment. And so, developers will need to alter their code or refer to the UI’s documentation to get used to it.

    Features and benefits:

  4. React Admin – GitHub stars: 21.8k | Forks: 4.8k

    React Admin is a notable mention on the React JS framework list. React Admin is great for creating business-to-business i.e., B2B admin applications on top of REST/GraphQL APIs. This framework is customizable by design.

    This React UI framework is made up of several popular projects along with React: Material UI, Redux, React Router, as well as React Final Form. The latter is a well-known form of state management solution.

    React Admin also offers an enterprise solution apart from their free version and components. This solution offers pro support from Marmelab along with access to private modules. React Admin has an active community and is hence pretty well-maintained.

    Features and benefits:

    • Adapts to any backend
    • Optimistic rendering which leads to fast UI
    • Built-in support for internationalization
    • Allows customization of the appearance and behavior of its components using a flexible and extensible API.
    • Highly customizable interface with powerful Theming
    • Supports multiple authentication providers such as RestAPI, OAuth, Basic Auth, etc.
    • Multiple layout options such as simple, tabbed, etc.
  5. React Toolbox- GitHub stars: 8.7k | Forks: 1k

    React Toolbox is a React UI components library. This library can be used to implement Google’s Material Design principles in projects. React Toolbox uses CSS modules for this implementation. Although you can utilize any module bundler, React Toolbox integrates with webpack workflow seamlessly. What’s more, the React Toolbox team provides an in-browser editor where developers can play with components in real time.

    You can import components in raw components or bundles while working with this library. The main difference is that for the latter, the components come with all required dependencies and themes injected for you.

    In other words, the CSS for each dependency will be available in your final CSS automatically and raw components don’t include any CSS. This means that you will need to provide a theme via properties to the component for it to be properly styled.

    Features and benefits:

    • Supports responsive design
    • High-quality and well-tested components
    • Modular architecture
    • Provides a set of components that are pre-built and customizable
  6. React Virtualized – GitHub stars: 24.8k | Forks: 3.1k

    If you are working on an application that is data-heavy in the front end, React Virtualized should be your choice. Virtualized has a set of reusable, lightweight components that can render large datasets efficiently.

    One of the most useful features of React Virtualized is that it uses windowing and virtualization techniques to optimize the rendering of large lists, tables, and grids. It is great for the performance of your application as it only renders the elements that are visible on the screen instead of all the elements at once.

    Another benefit of React Virtualized is that it provides a set of helper functions and utilities to assist with common UI patterns, such as infinite scrolling, dynamic row and column sizing, and responsive design. It supports both fixed and variable row heights, and it provides a flexible API for customizing the behavior and appearance of its components.

    Features and benefits:

    • Uses windowing to render a small portion of a large data set
    • Provides flexible API
    • Supports responsive design
    • Virtualization allows it to only render elements that are on the screen
  7. React Router – GitHub stars: 50k | Forks: 10k

    React Router is a popular compact library for React. It allows developers to build single-page applications with dynamic, client-side routing. React Router is designed to work seamlessly with React, and it allows developers to declaratively define the routes of their applications using JSX. This makes it easy to create complex and hierarchical navigational structures within a single-page application.

    One of the key benefits of using React Router is its ability to perform code splitting, which allows developers to load only the necessary components for a given route, reducing the initial loading time of the application and improving performance.

    Another benefit of React Router is its support for managing the browser’s history, which enables users to navigate through the application using the browser’s back and forward buttons.

    Features and benefits:

    • Uses windowing to render a small portion of a large data set
    • Provides flexible API
    • Supports responsive design
    • Virtualization allows it to only render elements that are on the screen
  8. Semantic UI React – GitHub stars: 50.5k | Forks: 5.1k

    Semantic UI integrates with React to offer a customized library of user interface components. Semantic UI does not have the virtual DOM, as it is independent of jQuery methods. The Semantic UI React library offers several customizable elements for front-end development.

    Semantic UI is an open-source project on GitHub that is useful for designing CSS style sheets with React framework. The Semantic UI framework features augmentation for building responsive web pages with unique component functionalities. The subcomponents offer better control over accessing and editing markup, and an auto-controlled state enables better utilization of components.

    Features and benefits:

    • Easy accessibility for users with disabilities
    • Offers cross-browser compatibility
    • Has a powerful theming system
    • Focused on creating human-friendly user interfaces
    • 50+ UI elements to choose from
    • 3000+ CSS variables available
  9. Material UI – Github star: 85.6k | Fork: 29.5k

    Material UI (MUI) includes pre-built material components and themes for designing user interface elements with React. Material UI has tools for navigation, sliders and drop-down menus, and a lot more customizable components. The MUI elements adhere to the Google Material Design standards that improve the application speed.

    The Material UI offers many tools and APIs for assisting native mobile app development. MUI features automatic color changes and interoperability between styling components and CSS-based modules.

    Also, read: How to Successfully Find and Hire the Best React Native Developer in 2023

    A large community of active front-end developers prefers MUI over other frameworks. The framework aids software developers to deal with the documentation and clear out their concerns and doubts.

    Features and benefits:

    • Customizable and reusable components
    • Powerful theming system
    • Responsive components
    • A large and active community of developers
  10. React Redux – GitHub star: 22.7k | Fork: 3.3k

    React Redux is a predictable component library with a simple interface and solid code-testing capabilities. When developers enter the values for the components,  the interface fetches, updates, and apprises the values automatically. Redux has several DevTools to spot application state changes, maintain logs as well as send error reports.

    Redux is one of the most popular React libraries, with more than 21,000 GitHub stars. Redux works great with Angular, React, and many more JavaScript frameworks. Developers can connect React code to several components, write consistent code, and edit it while the app runs with Redux.

    Features and benefits:

  11. Blueprint UI – Github star: 19.7k | Fork: 2.1k

    Yet another popular mention in this list of best React frameworks is Blueprint UI. This is a well-known CSS-based React framework for the front-end development of computer apps.

    Blueprint UI is best suited for designing UIs for complex and data-intensive web pages. Blueprint UI has a CSS library of 30 components with options for minimal scripting and coding.

    Blueprint UI boasts of a multi-touch interface that’s easy to use, intuitive, and great for developing websites and applications efficiently. This React framework also includes core components with distinct components for selection, date-time, tables, icons, and more. Blueprint UI has dark and light-themed modes and customizable design elements like classes, typography, and color scheme.

    Features and benefits:

    • Offers a seamless user experience
    • Provides comprehensive and easy-to-follow documentation
    • Provides a comprehensive set of reusable components, such as buttons, forms, and navigation menus
    • Offers cross-browser compatibility
  12. Grommet – GitHub stars: 8.2k | Forks: 1k

    HPE developed Grommet as a CSS framework for React with component packages for building responsive and intuitive mobile websites. Grommet offers a dynamic and vibrant layout, great accessibility, catchy themes, modularity, as well as simplicity. Grommet can be integrated into existing projects or used to create new ones with advanced themes.

    Grommet has an icon component with a massive bank of SVG icons to aid front-end development. The Grommet library also offers components for customizing UIs with utilities, media options, input visualization, layouts, and colors, as well as controls.

    Features and benefits:

    • Out-of-the-box support for disabled users (W3C support)
    • Provides extensive theming
    • Flexible and modular design
    • Design-focused approach
    • Provides responsive components
  13. Ant Design – GitHub stars: 85.3k | Forks: 38.8k

    This list of the best React frameworks would be incomplete without Ant Design. Ant Design is a CSS framework for React that developers extensively use to create appealing UI components. Ant Design offers an expansive design library for front-end development and a GUI design for client development. The framework’s design elements are simple to integrate, and its components can be directly used with React.

    Ant Design has many customizable themes, design elements, and development tools.

    The Ant Design library has more than 50 components and helps design UIs for enterprise-grade applications. More than 100 companies use Ant Design for their projects, thanks to its flexible design and features.

    Features and benefits:

    • Multi-language support to ease building applications for a global audience
    • Provides developer-friendly API
    • Responsive components can automatically adjust their size, layout, and style based on the device and screen size of the user.
    • Offers TypeScript support
    • Powerful theming system
  14. Chakra UI – GitHub stars: 32k | Forks: 2.9k

    Next up on our React JS framework list is Chakra, a React component library that requires less time for writing code. The Chakra UI enables faster development and offers accessible, modular, and flexible UI components for building applications.

    Chakra UI enables React developers to create newer components efficiently. In Chakra UI, the components are customizable, reusable, and adhere to the WAI-ARIA standards.

    With dark and light UI options, themes, and 49+ components, Chakra UI includes various inputs, accordions, tips, and icons. Though the Chakra UI library is new, the community is active in resolving doubts.

    Features and benefits:

    • Offers accessibility for users with disabilities
    • A comprehensive set of reusable components
    • Light / Dark mode support
    • Uses CSS-in-JS
  15. Fluent UI – GitHub stars: 15.2k | Forks: 2.4k

    The Microsoft team developed the Fabric React UI library, and later it was renamed Fluent UI. The components and graphics resemble MS Office products and share compatibility with OneNote, Azure DevOps, Office 365, and more. The default settings of Fluent UI are suitable for most projects.

    Fluent UI contains pre-built components like inputs, notifications, menus, and more for developing applications.

    In Fluent UI, the components are customizable and offer a straightforward approach to web development. The Fluent UI library also offers cross-platform compatibility, supporting desktop, Android, and iOS devices.

    Features and benefits:

    • Fluent UI React library makes integration easy into your React applications.
    • Provides adaptive styling
    • Microsoft’s Fluent Design language provides a modern and immersive user experience
    • Offers cross-platform support
  16. Evergreen – GitHub stars: 12.1k | Forks: 845

    Segment developed the Evergreen React UI framework with 30+ components. The components are built on top of the primitive React UI, with commonly usable patterns. The default and classic themes combined with the Evergreen Figma library make it easy to create components in CSS.

    As a CSS library for React, Evergreen contains a collection of React modules with React Primitive. Also, Evergreen v6  hosts an updated theme API for better customization and accessibility. The Evergreen library is easy to edit, contributor-friendly, and offers flexibility for creating UIs.

    Features and benefits:

    • Server-side-rendering (SSR) offered out of the box
    • Provides dynamic form components
    • The smart algorithm automatically handles spacing and alignment between the components
    • Has a solid and active community support

Benefits of using React UI frameworks

Benefits of React UI

Benefits of React UI

Here are some benefits of using React UI frameworks:

  1. Fast and smooth development: React UI frameworks provide a set of pre-built and customizable components that can be easily integrated into your application, saving development time and effort.
  2. Consistent design across components: React UI frameworks provide a consistent design and user experience across all of its components, making it easy to create a cohesive and intuitive user interface.
  3. High-quality components: React UI frameworks provide a set of high-quality and well-tested components, ensuring that your application is reliable and free from bugs and issues.
  4. Great cross-platform compatibility: React UI frameworks are designed to work seamlessly across all modern browsers and devices, ensuring that your application works well for all users.
  5. High accessibility and ease of use: React UI frameworks are designed with accessibility in mind, providing a set of components that are easy to use and accessible to users with disabilities.
  6. Powerful theming system: Many React UI frameworks provide a powerful theming system that allows developers to customize the appearance and behavior of its components to match the design of their applications.
  7. Good community support: React frameworks are supported by a large and active community of developers, ensuring that they stay up-to-date with the latest developments in React and web development in general.

Overall, using React-based frameworks can help developers build modern, responsive, and accessible web applications more efficiently, with consistent design and high-quality components. This can lead to faster development times, better user experiences, and a more scalable and maintainable codebase.

Selecting the best React UI frameworks for your projects

It’s no doubt that React is one of the most preferred front-end libraries by web developers. Choosing the best UI framework for React is a crucial part of your development journey. Ensure that you clearly understand the client’s requirements, your team’s skillset, and the objectives and the architecture of the app you’re building before making a decision.

React is a popular choice for building UI for web apps because it allows developers to create reusable UI components, manage the state of the application in an efficient way, and improve performance through the use of a virtual DOM. Additionally, React has a large and active community with a wealth of resources and libraries available.

How does React’s virtual DOM improve performance?

React’s virtual DOM improves performance by reducing the amount of direct manipulation of the actual DOM. When the state of a React application changes, the virtual DOM will first update a virtual representation of the UI. Then, React will compare the virtual DOM with the actual DOM, and determine the minimal set of changes that need to be made to the actual DOM in order to bring it in line with the virtual DOM.

This approach is more efficient than manipulating the actual DOM directly because it allows React to minimize the number of changes that need to be made to the actual DOM. This minimization of changes results in fewer costly DOM operations, and as a result, improved overall performance. Additionally, React also batches multiple updates together to further enhance the performance, this means that React will wait until all state updates are done before it updates the real DOM, this will avoid unnecessary re-rendering and unnecessary computations.

How does React differ from other popular JavaScript libraries for building UIs such as Angular or Vue.js?

React, Angular, and Vue.js are all popular JavaScript libraries for building user interfaces, but they have some key differences.

React: React focuses on building reusable UI components, and managing the state of the application in an efficient way. React’s virtual DOM improves performance by minimizing the amount of direct manipulation of the actual DOM. React does not provide a built-in solution for routing and other features that are common in single-page applications, instead relies on third-party libraries to provide those features.

Angular: Angular is a full-featured framework that provides a built-in solution for many features that are commonly needed in single-page applications, such as routing, dependency injection, and form handling. Angular uses a two-way data binding approach, which means that changes to the model are automatically reflected in the view and vice-versa. Angular follows a more opinionated approach to structuring the application and has a steeper learning curve compared to React.

Vue.js: Vue.js is similar to React in that it focuses on building reusable UI components and provides a virtual DOM for improved performance. Vue.js also provides a built-in solution for many common features, like routing, and it uses a similar two-way data binding approach as Angular. Vue.js is considered the easiest to learn and understand among the three, and it has a simpler API than React, but it is not as widely used as React and Angular.

In summary, React focuses on building reusable UI components and efficient state management, Angular is a full-featured framework with built-in solutions for many common features, and Vue.js is a lightweight framework that is easy to learn and understand.

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  1. What is a React framework?

    React is a JavaScript library created by Meta (formerly known as Facebook). A React UI framework contains components that can be added to UIs. React helps developers build user interfaces for web pages and native mobile applications.
  2. Why use React for the front end?

    As compared to other frameworks, React is very easy to maintain and is quite flexible because of its modular structure. This efficiency and flexibility enables businesses to save a huge amount of effort, cost, and time. 
  3. Which React UI framework is the fastest for web development?

    Material UI is one the fastest React UI frameworks for web development.
  4. Which CSS framework should you use with React?

    Bootstrap and Material UI are some great CSS frameworks that can be used with React.
  5. Can React be used with other frameworks?

    Yes, React can be integrated with other frameworks because it is only a view library. 
  6. Which framework do we use for React?

    Depending on your project requirements, you can choose one of the popular UI frameworks for React like Material UI, Ant Design for React, Storybook, Semantic UI React, React Bootstrap, React Redux, Blueprint UI, Grommet, Chakra UI, Fluent UI, and Evergreen. You can also try Material Kit React, React Toolbox, React Virtualized, and more.
  7. Which UI is best for ReactJS?

    UI frameworks like MUI (Material UI), React Bootstrap, React Redux, and Semantic UI are some of the best UIs for ReactJS. Ant Design, Chakra UI, Fluent UI, and Evergreen are also popular UIs.


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By Apr 18, 2023